Agency is wiping out America’s last wild horses based on fake numbers

“My family helped settle Oregon and I’ve always liked going out into the wild to see the wild herds,” says Bob Pritchett. “Now I go out there and don’t see any. BLM is lying. The truth is they are underpopulated.”

So called “humane fertility control”, Pesticide PZP, etc. will eventually manage wild horses and burros to extinction. Overpopulation is Fake News planted to then fear monger the public with BLM’s killing/slaughter proposal yet their goal is to ultimately push for public approval of sterilization using the Problem -> Reaction -> Solution Hegelian Dialectic method. Sterilized wild horses will eventually die off leaving no more wild horses on public land. This #WildHorseWipeOut is what they want. The American public wants land and forage given to native wild horses and burros for their principal use according to the 1971 law.

Right now an independent head count is needed! Demand an Urgent Congressional Investigation and Head Count of all Wild Horses and Burros in Captivity and in the Wild:  

Marybeth Devlin reports that America’s wild horses are Underpopulated:

Per the guidelines of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) own geneticist, the arbitrary management levels (AMLs) of 83% of wild-horse herds are set below minimum-viable population (MVP). Further, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature says the MVP should be 16 times higher for the species to survive and thrive.

Sparsely Populated: Wild horses are few and far between.

In Wyoming, BLM limits the Red Desert herds to 1 wild horse per 1569 acres that’s 2½ square miles. In Oregon, BLM restricts the Beaty’s Butte herd to 1 wild horse per 4381 acres (7 square miles). In Nevada, BLM limits the Silver King herd to 1 wild horse per 9591 acres (15 square miles).  *Note: figures are based on BLM’s low AML which is their management protocol.

Fraudulent figures: BLM reports biologically-impossible population-growth-figures. Normal herd-growth = 5%. Here are just a few examples of BLM’s growth-figures:

418% — 84 times the norm — Black Rock Range East
293% — 59 times the norm — Diamond Hills South
237% — 47 times the norm — Divide Basin
417% — 83 times the norm — Nut Mountain
260% — 52 times the norm — Shawave

How many wild horses have been rounded up and shipped to slaughter?



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Posted by on July 22, 2019 in Uncategorized


Letter to Bureau of Land Management by Mary Beth Devlin: Reality Comes to BLM – Time for Change

June 12, 2019

Bureau of Land Management

Burns District Office (BDO)

28910 Highway 20 West

Hines, OR 97738

Attn:  Spay Project Lead

Full Title:     Spay Feasibility and On-Range Outcomes

Document: Environmental Assessment (EA)

NEPA ID:    DOI-BLM-ORWA-B050-2019-0013-EA

This letter responds to your solicitation of public comments regarding the horrific Mengelian experiments proposed for infliction on wild-mustang mares.  I submit my comments as an interested party in behalf of the wild horses of the Warm Springs herd of Oregon.

NEPA Project Summary Page

Link to pdf of the EA


Odious Experiments, Silly Objectives, Fraudulent Justification

BLM would subject 100 defenseless wild mares to an archaic, cruel, and dangerous surgery — ovariectomy via colpotomy.  This high-risk procedure would jeopardize the mares’ health, destroy their fertility, and in many cases even cause their death.  Misleadingly labeled “research,” the stated objectives include determining whether fewer births would result due to the majority of the herd’s females having been sterilized.  BLM claims to be curious how the spayed mares’ behavior as well as that of their herd-mates would be affected.

Forcing defenseless mares to endure painful surgical procedures for such silly and spurious objectives, which anyone can see through, is unethical.  These bogus experiments do not merit any funding, be it private or taxpayer-sponsored.  They are merely a fourth attempt to spend funds that had been inappropriately awarded to BLM-Oregon to solve a concocted crisis — a fabricated overpopulation based on an arbitrary herd-size, a preposterous stocking-density, and falsified records.

FONSI Prepared Before Comment Period

BDO included a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) along with the new EA, yet again signaling that the proposed alternative was a fait accompli.  This move reflects BDO’s contempt for the public-comment component of the NEPA process.  Issuing the FONSI in advance announced to all concerned parties that it does not matter what the American People want.  BLM practices Authoritarianism based on the Big Con of “overpopulation.”

BLM Dismissed the Highly Controversial Nature of The Experiments

In the 2019 FONSI, BLM made the same false statement as in the earlier 2018 (initial and updated) FONSIs and the original 2016 FONSI, expressing recalcitrant disregard for how its proposed cruel experiments have inflamed and antagonized the public.  To wit:

Controversy in this context means disagreement about the nature of the effects, not expressions of opposition to the proposed action or preference among the alternatives.

That claim was and still is false.  This EA is highly controversial — just like the previous ones in 2018 and the one prior to that in 2016.  It has caused an uproar in the human environment.  Truth be told, tens of thousands of American citizens, speaking for millions of others, are voicing absolute opposition to the proposed action.  We demand that BLM renounce this EA and/or adopt the “No Action” alternative.  This is not merely an expression of our preference.  It is our demand.

BLM and USGS Go It Alone … for the Fourth Time

Three years ago, BLM attempted to ram through essentially this same scheme by cloaking it in academic respectability.  BLM’s partner-in-crime was to be Oregon State University (OSU).  However, following intense controversy and multiple lawsuits, OSU backed out, and the evil plan was stopped … for the moment.

But never one to admit it was wrong, BLM persisted.  In 2018, BLM came back with new partners.  Colorado State University (CSU) was chosen for academic cover, and United States Geological Survey (USGS) — also a bureau under Department of the Interior — was brought along to share in the spoils of the excess funds available.  However, as before, the university-piece fell through, as CSU wisely exited from what it realized was a problematic relationship.

BLM and USGS then opted to go it alone.  They partnered up without an academic component, hoping the third time might be the charm.  But that run failed too.  Displaying continued poor judgment, BLM and USGS are trying for yet the fourth time to pull off this con-job.

Follow the Money

With nearly $900,000 in funding at stake, BLM and USGS are hanging on tight to a pot of money they want to exploit.  They insist the experiments are necessary as are the funds to pay for them.  Otherwise, if unspent, Congress might conclude the funds weren’t needed, leading it to cut appropriations next time.

Meanwhile, every time BLM issues a new EA along with a FONSI, the District Office spends money from the study-grant.  Even the lawsuits that BLM inevitably has to fight help deplete the funds allocated for the “study.”   BLM transfers money to the local US Attorney to defend the Agency against lawsuits that have been and will surely be filed to stop this illegal scheme.

The Newly-Tweaked Design

As previously devised, BLM would hire rogue veterinarians to carry out the unethical experiments, and USGS would study the behavioral after-effects.  Clearly, BLM is unqualified to administer and oversee a surgical research program.  And, obviously, taxpayers should not be made to pay for USGS’ boondoggle of a study.  The only difference between the current study-design and previous ones is that the mares subjected to surgery would not be pregnant.  Glad to hear that you are proposing a less-gruesome model; but sorry guys, the answer is still “NO.”

Deadly Duplicative Experiments

Several years ago, a number of mares that used to inhabit the Sheldon Wildlife Refuge were sterilized per the same obsolete surgical procedure at issue here.  Approximately 30 mares died as a result of the surgery.  Those who initially survived ovariectomy via colpotomy were released without followup; so, it is likely that the death-toll was even higher.  It is a waste of taxpayer money to duplicate a failed experiment that led to the unnecessary suffering and death of so many horses.

Vetting the Veterinarians

Is your lead veterinarian the same one who was under investigation by his state board last year?  You know, the vet whose malpractice resulted in the deaths of the 30 mares at Sheldon, cited above.  He and all other veterinarians that agree to participate in this project would be violating their oath to “first, do no harm.”  Ethical veterinarians have already weighed in, expressing their opposition to performing this …

  1. Outdated and dangerous procedure
  2. On wild mares
  3. In a primitive, non-sterile operating-theater.

Sterilized Mares Are Not Found in Nature

BLM repeatedly proclaims that its goal is to maintain a thriving, natural ecological balance.  There is nothing natural about sterilization-surgery.  Mares with ovariectomies are not found in Nature.  Released back to the range, they will not contribute to a genetically-viable, self-sustaining herd.  If BLM were to implement such surgeries, it would be substituting harmful, expensive, intrusive meddling in place of the minimum-feasible management-model specified by the Act.  Moreover, having humans select which mares to sterilize would interfere with Natural Selection.  Wild herds need to be molded by their environment, not manipulated by humans.

Further, if the sterilized wild mares survived the surgeries and were released back to the range, their behavior would be abnormal.  They would experience abrupt menopause.  Herd-dynamics would become dysfunctional, creating chaos and causing suffering.  It is abusive to visit such torment on innocent wild horses.  BLM’s attempt to justify sicko experiments as “furthering knowledge” (another repeat FONSI catch-phrase) could not be further from the Truth.  The “detailed quantification” would be just another way for BLM to exploit the Warm Springs horses for the agency’s undeserved fiscal benefit.  Bad behavior should not be rewarded.  Otherwise, it will proliferate.

Freedom from Torture

The Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act requires that these “living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West  … shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death ….”  The planned experiments-in-question would include all such activities prohibited by the Act.  There is an aspect of sadism to them — like, “let’s see how many mares we can kill with risky surgery, and then track any survivors to see how they behave once their ovaries have been removed.”  Torture of defenseless animals — that’s what such “research” is.

Sicko Experiments

Please take my comments as feedback on how your project is perceived by American citizens, taxpayers, and voters.  Although there are many reasons why your proposed twisted scheme is ill-advised, you already know it’s wrong, don’t you?  But grant-money has been secured through the “overpopulation” trickery, and you are taking advantage of it to squander our tax-dollars on bogus studies that will hurt America’s wild horses.  While the poor creatures targeted for these brutal experiments may be returned to the range, they will arrive back thorougly traumatized.  There is no need for a study to determine that that is what will happen.

Stand Down

BLM must get out of the way of Nature.  That means no roundups, no birth control, no sterilization, no experimentation.  Natural Selection must be allowed to mold the herds.  Predators — especially apex predators such as mountain lions (of which there is an abundance in Oregon) and wolves — must be conserved as population-control agents.  With time, a thriving natural ecological balance will, finally, be possible.

Reject Experimentation on America’s Wild Horses

The proposed experiments are antithetical to the spirit and intent of the Law.  Responsible DOI, BLM, and USGS Administrators must withdraw from this ill-conceived project.  Spare the wild horses from cruel experiments.  Save taxpayers from wasting millions of dollars on specious research.


Sterilizations — Predicated on Falsified Population-Growth Data

BLM used the overpopulation-ruse to secure funding from Congress for population-suppression research.  However, the government doesn’t have a wild-horse problem — wild horses have a government problem.   The alleged overpopulation of wild horses is a pernicious lie, a concocted crisis, particularly in Oregon.

Arbitrary Management Level (AML)

According to BLM, the maximum number of wild horses that the 499,457 acres (780 square miles) of the Warm Springs habitat can sustain is 178.  That number represents a 12% reduction from the original high-AML of 202.   Such numbers are not environmental requirements but rather political constructs, set for administrative convenience and political expediency.  The reduced upper bound of the Warm Springs AML established a maximum stocking density of 1 wild horse per 2,806 acres — nearly 42/5 square miles.

Austere Management Level (AML)

However, BLM does not manage per the maximum but rather down to the minimum, that is, to the low bound of the AML — 96.  That number reflects a 131/2% reduction from the original low-AML of 111.  As with the high-AML, the low-AML is not a scientifically-determined number.  This austere management level corresponds to a stocking density of 1 wild horse per 5,204 acres —  well over 8 square miles!

Sparsely Populated, Widely Dispersed

Obviously, BLM aims to keep the Warm Spring wild horses few and far between.  The paltry stocking-density is designed to easily create the false impression of an overpopulation when, in fact, even when over the AML, the herd is underpopulated.

Unfortunately, Warm Springs is not alone.  LIsted below are other herds in Oregon that are also restricted by sparse stocking densities, down-to-which BLM culls these herds:

1 wild horse per  2,073  acres  —  3.2  square miles  —  Sand Springs

1 wild horse per  2,302  acres  —  3.6  square miles  —  Stinking Water

1 wild horse per  2,320  acres  —  3.6  square miles  —  Palomino Butte

1 wild horse per  2,832  acres  —  4.4  square miles  —  Pokegama

1 wild horse per  2,885  acres  —  4.5  square miles  —  Liggett Table

1 wild horse per  2,972  acres  —  4.6  square miles  —  Coyote Lake

1 wild horse per  4,381  acres  —  6.8  square miles  —  Beatys Butte

1 wild horse per  5,062  acres  —  7.9  square miles  —  Paisley Desert

Livestock Have Taken Over the Wild Horses’ Dedicated Habitat

BLM bemoans the phony overpopulation it has concocted via an arbitrary herd-size limit (96 wild horses) and a vastly-dispersed stocking-density (just 1 wild horse per 8 square miles).  However, BLM blithely ignores the fact that livestock numbering in the thousands rule the horses’ dedicated habitat.  The “active preference” distinction is meaningless because the permittees self-report their use of AUMs, thereby controlling how much they claim they didn’t use.

Please compare and contrast:

19,392 AUMs for Livestock —         94.4%

1,152 AUMs for Wild Horses —       5.6%


20,544 AUMs, L/S + WHs — 100.0%


Although BLM incorrectly alleges conflict between mustangs and livestock over forage, one of the dominant herbivores on the range are lagomorphs — jackrabbits, hares, and cottontails.  BLM has neither determined nor factored in their impact on the range.

A recent study — in neighboring Utah — found that jackrabbits were consuming 34% of the forage on local grazing-allotments.  Evidently, the creatures reproducing like rabbits were rabbits.

Instead of scapegoating wild horses for forage likely eaten by a different species, BLM needs to conduct a Ecological Site Inventory (ESI) to determine  actual use — including trespass use.  Such a formal inventory pro-rates actual use by each animal-species present, including rodents and insects, and even including creatures such as lagomorphs.

An ESI involves teams — a soil-survey team, a vegetation-mapping team, a vegetation-transecting team, and a phenological data-collection team.  There are minimum data-collection standards, and they are quantitative: Production and composition by air-dry weight (ADW) by species.

An ESI requires there be a Plan, which must include but is not limited to logistics, field measurements and techniques, compilation procedures, reporting, and quality control.  All kinds of maps are used — orthophoto quads, topographic and planimetric maps, and administrative maps.

BLM-Oregon should stop depending on qualitative assessments such as the Landscape Appearance method, for evaluating rangeland conditions.  Technical Reference (TR) 1734-7, Ecological Site Inventory, warns that such qualitative assessments “may result in reduced accuracy, limiting use of the data.”  BLM-Oregon should conduct a formal vegetation-inventory by means of an ESI.


In normal times, locusts — grasshoppers and crickets — consume 20-to-25% of the forage in areas where they are present.  However, in times of outbreaks, they can eat nearly all of the green biomass.

Below is the link to the 2019 USDA-APHIS map, showing areas where there is grasshopper-and-cricket infestation.  Oregon appears to be suffering an invasion.  As the map suggests, the creatures devouring the forage like locusts probably are locusts.

An Ecological Site Inventory would reveal the extent of forage-consumption by locusts and crickets in the project area.  Again, you may be surprised to learn who is eating what and how much.

Long Gestation Years to Reach Puberty Alternate Year Foaling

Having digressed by necessity into a discussion of the uninvestigated impact on rangeland health of livestock, lagomorphs, and locusts, let us now return to BLM’s universal scapegoat:  Wild horses.

Horses are a slow-growth species with regard to reproduction.  The gestation-period lasts an average of 11.2 months, and a mare produces just 1 foal.  There is a delay of two or — usually — three years before fillies begin to produce foals (National Research Council 1980, citing Eberhardt et al. 1982, and Garrott and Taylor 1990).  Further, there is evidence that wild mares tend to foal every other year, likely due to inadequate energy-reserves to sustain a pregnancy every year (NRC 1980).  Per Fisher’s Principle, the natural gender-ratio of a herd is 1:1.  BLM has been known to skew this ratio to favor males, thereby limiting the component of the herd that can produce foals.

The Birth Rate The Herd-Growth Rate

The birth rate and the herd-growth rate are different measures.  For a herd-growth rate to be valid, the birth rate must be reduced by the respective death rates for foals and for wild horses other-than-foals.

Foal-Mortality Is Very High

While birth rates vary, within a year, between 32% and 50% of foals vanish (McCort 1984, citing NRC 1980; and Gregg et al. 2014).  Thus, the birth rate is just a temporary blip in the data.

Adult-Mortality Must Also Be Factored

Meanwhile, the mortality rate (extrapolated from the survival rate) for wild horses other-than-foals ranges from 3% to 20%, with a median of 11.5% (BLM Smoke Creek EA 2017, citing Wolfe 1980, Eberhardt et al. 1982, Garrott and Taylor 1990).  The use of 11.5% as a reasonable estimate of adult mortality among free wild horses is supported by two statements, found in BLM environmental assessments regarding captive wild horses kept in long-term, off-range pastures (ORPs):

  1. “Natural mortality of wild horses in ORP averages approximately 8% per year ….” and
  2. “Wild horses residing on ORP facilities live longer, on the average, than wild horses residing on public rangelands ….”

Invalid Year-to-Year Population-Growth Data

BLM declares a standard population-growth rate of 20% per year.  But that projection is clearly false because it does not consider the high foal-mortality rate or the other-than-foal mortality rate.  Per the independent studies cited above, it appears that BLM’s claim is exaggerated by anywhere from two to ten times the actual herd-growth rate.

Because the subject EA targets the Warm Springs horses for sterilization per an alleged overpopulation, let’s review what BLM claimed were the herd’s annual growth rates in recent years.  The chart below tracks BLM’s reported population-growth figures for the Warm Springs herd as of March 1 of each year since 2010, the year that will serve as the base, the starting point.  Note that contraceptive treatments (PZP) should have significantly reduced the growth-rate; but BLM ignored that effect.

Warm Springs HMA — 499,457 acres — 780 square miles

Low-AML = 96.  The level down-to-which BLM culls the herd.

Stocking-density = 8 square miles / wild horse

2010    362  —  November 2010 cullPZP given

2011  —  111

2012  —  133  —  20%  —  despite PZP in effect

2013  —  160  —  20%  —

2014  —  192  —  20%  —

2015    368  —  92%  —

2016  —  442  —  20%  —

2017  —  586  —  33%  —

2018  —  739  —  26%  —

2018  —  886  —  20%  —  after the foaling season

Even the 20% growth rates are inflated.  How curious that PZP had no effect, per BLM’s reports.  Please note that the implausible growth rates compound, as each successive year is calculated per those growth rates that preceded it.

It is according to these falsified growth rates that BLM claims an overpopulation, one that would appear to double every four years … or sooner (note the 92% increase that BLM reported in 2015).  However, without the fabricated appearance of an “overpopulation,” there would be no “crisis,” would there?  How would BLM justify its sinecures and paychecks at that rate?  It couldn’t; so, it invents a problem to “solve” at great trouble and expense, to gain the administrative funds that accompany contracts for research and roundups.

Falsified Herd-Growth Rates Found in BLM Reports for Oregon

Warm Springs is not the only herd in Oregon whose year-to-year population increases defy credulity.  It is important to consider the others because BLM claims one of the objectives of its experiments is to determine the feasibility of sterilizing the mares of additional herds that it claims are overpopulated.  Thus, BLM is endeavoring to establish a management-model based on fraudulent figures.

101%  —    South Steens

102%  —    Pokegama

104%  —    Palomino Butte

170%  —    Stinking Water

179%  —    Paisley Desert

256%  —    Beatys Butte

317%  —    Jackies Butte


Fraud Is a Crime

BLM’s representations with regard to Oregon’s wild horses are false and misleading.  Making false and misleading representations = fraud, which violates Title 18 USC 1001 of the Federal criminal code.  Embezzlement and theft — expenditures of government funds for fraudulent reasons — violate various sections of Title 18 USC Chapter 31.

Pattern of Fraudulent Reporting, Misuse of Government Funds

There seems to be a pattern to this fraud.  It appears to extend across BLM field offices, district offices, the state office, and the National Office.  As noted in previous comments, BLM offices in other states have reported fraudulent wild-horse herd-growth rates too.

As American citizens, we expect our government officials to administer programs and funds honestly.  In Oregon and elsewhere, BLM appears to coordinate the reporting of fictitious figures to secure increased funding to solve a phony problem.

Mandate to Ensure Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of Data

BLM is bound by the Information Quality Act, better known as the Data Quality Act (DQA). explains the Act thusly:

The Data Quality Act (DQA) is an attempt by Congress to ensure that federal agencies use and disseminate accurate information. The DQA requires federal agencies to issue information quality guidelines ensuring the quality, utility, objectivity and integrity of information that they disseminate and provide mechanisms for affected persons to correct such information. It is important for natural resources and environmental attorneys to be aware of this law in the event that a client has an interest in filing a petition with an agency to challenge the quality of information it has used or disseminated.

However, BLM’s data is corrupt — falsified in the agency’s self-interest and perpetuation, with an aim to secure the biggest budget that the false appearance of a wild-horse overpopulation can generate.

Code of Conduct

BLM must also adhere to the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Code of Scientific and Scholarly Conduct, which applies to all staff members as well as to contractors, partners, permittees, and volunteers.  The Code states:

Scholarly information considered in Departmental decision making must be robust, of the highest quality, and the result of as rigorous scientific and scholarly processes as can be achieved.  Most importantly, it must be trustworthy.

However, BLM’s herd-growth figures with regard to the Warm Springs mustangs clearly violate the Code.  The numbers have been ginned up way beyond the high-normative growth rate.

It Is Wrong to Reward Fraud

The proposed research is predicated on falsehoods:  Overpopulation and a high reproductive rate.  Government funds should not pay for fraud.  Instead, if BLM finds itself with excess budget, that money should be redirected to improvements — such as placing guzzlers throughout the herd management areas and providing badly-needed shade and shelter for captured wild horses penned up in those feedlots that BLM euphemistically calls “off range pastures.”

Cut the Funds, Cut the FTEs

BLM finds itself with excess funds on hand.  It is desperate to find a way to spend that money, even if it means resorting to a spurious research project based on falsified records.  The administrative funds that would accompany the $900,000 grant would pay for a lot of staff-salaries, benefits, and overhead.  So, despite having been caught in a fraud, BLM pretends all is well and bulls ahead defiantly.

I call on the President and Congress to perform liposuction on BLM’s budget.  Stop these evil experiments, slash BLM’s funding, and revoke its budget-authority.  The bureaucrats who concocted this devious scheme and the administrators who signed off on it should be fired.


Wild Horses Do Have Native Predators

Nature provides its own population-control for wild horses by means of large predators.  There can be no “thriving natural ecological balance” without apex predators.  Mountain lions, bears, wolves, and coyotes effectively control wild-horse populations.  Predators promote survival of the fittest, as Nature intends.  Therefore, the best approach is for BLM to concentrate on conserving native predators to permit natural control of the wild-horse population on the range.

Mountain Lions Are Particularly-Effective Population-Control Agents

Many studies have established that mountain lions prey on wild horses more frequently than previously believed.  Canadian biologists found that cougars tended to kill younger animals, especially when preying on free-roaming horses.  Nearly all of the cougars’ predation-events (86%) involved animals less than 2 years old.

In an interview  with the Billings Gazette, the above study’s lead researcher, Kyle Knopf, described observing a cougar that brought down a feral horse in less than 30 yards from where it attacked.

Other research confirms that mountain lions are quite capable, all by themselves, of keeping wild horse populations in check.

The Montgomery Pass Wild Horse Territory, on the California/Nevada border, has had its population managed by cougars alone.  An eleven-year study by Turner and Morrison (2001) concluded that the growth of this herd was limited by cougar predation.  In fact, the population actually decreased over the course of the research.  Cost:  $0.

The Nevada Wild Horse Range (current designation) averaged negative population growth due to cougar predation from 1989 to 1998 (Greger and Romney, 1999

Per The Cloud Foundation, the Pryor Mountain herd averaged no population growth over a four-year period due to predation by mountain lions.  Only when those lions were killed — at the behest of BLM, so that the Agency could continue practicing management of the herd with PZP — did the wild-horse population begin to expand.

Healthy Predators, Healthy Ecosystems

Minimum feasible management means letting natural selection do its job.  Mountain lions, wolves, bears, and coyotes should be allowed to carry out their role of population-control agents.  Predators will cull the weak, and a thriving natural ecological balance will ensue.  Conservation Researcher Dr. Corey Bradshaw emphasizes

“… just how important predators are for healthy ecosystems.  Long story short — if your predators are not doing well, chances are the rest of the ecosystem is performing poorly.”

Due to pressure from livestock and hunting interests that mistakenly view predators as pests or competitors, it has been the Federal government’s practice to exterminate native predators outright or to allow them to be hunted on a massive scale.  That policy is wrong.  Predators function to keep the ecosystem in balance.  Without them, prey species decline, as do the forage-production species on which the prey-animals feed.  Dr. Bradshaw warns: “Without predators, our feeble attempts to conserve ecosystems are doomed to fail.”  Here’s the link to his article:

Predator Protection

HMAs should be safe-havens for predators, which serve as wild-horse population-control agents.

Again, absent predators, a “thriving natural ecological balance” is not possible.  Therefore, BLM should ensure the protection of native predators, instituting a prohibition on hunting them.  Conservation measures will work to enable the right number of predators to establish themselves.  Large carnivores will keep the wild-horse population in check.  Such an approach would keep the herd-population in equilibrium with minimal human-interference, just as the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act envisioned.  Predators are the “no-cost” option.

Recommendations:  A puma, bear, wolf, and coyote-protection program should be implemented.  BLM should collaborate with Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to prohibit hunting of predators in the HAs and HMAs.  Concerned livestock operators and residents of the surrounding area can be advised to use guardian-dogs to protect their animals.  There are several specialty-breeds that have been developed just for this purpose, and they are reportedly effective.  Protecting one’s herd is just part of the cost of doing business.


Facilitation, Commensalism Equids Enhance Livestock Production

BLM alleges a “potential for direct competition for forage” (EA, screen-page 62) between cattle and horses.  However, in fact, there is actually commensalism rather than competition.

Commensals are animals that eat “at the same table” but without competing.  Such is the case for equids, bovids, and ovids.  Perhaps counter-intuitive but actually true, research has shown that cattle gain more weight when grazed with equids.

BLM needs to stop the range-war, pitting wild horses against cattle.  Forage-grazing is not a zero-sum game.

Symbiosis Equids Graze Old Growth Cattle Prefer New Growth

Wild horses utilize coarse, old-growth forage.  They are like lawn mowers.  They take off the top growth — the dry, unpalatable layer.  This grazing method enables the plants to put down deeper roots, and it prevents weeds from maturing to produce seeds.  Grasses are encouraged by the horses’ frequent “mowing.”

Livestock, in contrast, prefer tender new growth.  They will even return to patches previously grazed — i.e., not rested — to get at that new growth.

Thus, by consuming the old growth and making available the new growth, wild horses make conditions better for the range and better for livestock.

Livestock and Horses Sharing Pastures “Of Great Benefit” to Both

When livestock and horses share — or rotate among — pastures, parasites are reduced.  That is because, with one insignificant exception, horses and livestock ruminants are not afflicted by the same parasites.  So, cattle and horses “serve as vacuum cleaners” — horses of cattle-parasites, cattle of horse-parasites.  They “clean up” the pasture for one another.  Such pasture-sharing is a holistic way to control parasites.  Please listen to the recorded interview on this topic-on-interest, linked below, with Ray Geor, BVSc, PhD, Dipl. ACVIM, professor and chairman of Large Animal Clinical Sciences at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Michigan State University.

Run-time:  2 minutes, 28 seconds

Holistic Approach to Parasite-Eradication — Essential

A recent study reported that chemical methods of reducing the parasite-load — namely, Ivermectin — is detrimental to dung beetles.  Those creatures have an important role to fulfill in Nature.  As their name implies, they clean the range of dung, something you don’t want an excess of.

Highlights of the Research

  • At the short term, ivermectin residues cause a strong decrease in dung relocation and dung spreading by dung beetles.
  • Conventional use of ivermectin disrupts diversity by affecting species richness, abundance and biomass of dung beetles.
  • Reduction in the functional efficiency of dung degradation resulted in the long-term accumulation of manure.
  • Use of ivermectin causes lower quality in soil organic C and the increase of the in-situ mineral N and P production.
  • The results of this study highlight that the effects of ivermectin must be investigated from a global perspective.
  • The use of this veterinary medical product must be monitored and controlled following a precautionary principle.

Verdú JR, Lobo JM, Sánchez-Piñero F, Gallego B, Numa C, Lumaret JP, Cortez V, Ortiz AJ, Tonelli M, García-Teba JP, Rey A, Rodríguez A, Durán J.  (2018).  Ivermectin residues disrupt dung beetle diversity, soil properties and ecosystem functioning: An interdisciplinary field study.  Science of The Total Environment.  DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.331  Retrieved from


Wild-Horse Fire Brigade

Overlooked in the uproar over BLM’s exploding spreadsheets is the critical service that wild horses perform:  Lowering the risk of fire.  Wild horses thrive on marginal forage — that coarse dry stuff that cattle don’t like.  The horses’ grazing-strategy helps reduce the fuel-load that would otherwise feed catastrophic wildfires.  Wild horses are perfect for fire-prevention duty.  In fact, there is a current proposal to deploy them to remote, rugged terrain, where they will graze down the overgrowth of grasses, brush, and twigs that, when seasonally dried out, can fuel a megafire.  The idea is to have that dried-out forage feed wild horses rather than wildfires.  The “Wild Horse Fire Brigade” — a smoke-free, cost-free, and ecologically-safe method of reducing excess dry brush and grass on public lands — already has the support of local elected officials in Oregon.

The short (8 minutes, 34 seconds) documentary titled “Fuel, Fire, and Wild Horses” provides an overview of how it would work.

BLM Should Maximize the Warm Springs Wild-Horse Fire Brigade

Rather than cull and cut the little Warm Springs herd, BLM should be doing everything possible to maximize the benefits and protections the wild horses confer on the public lands.  Now is the time to return all captured Warm Springs horses to their home-habitat.

Smoke Inhalation, Even from Controlled Burns, Is Injurious to HealthA special report coincidentally aired today, June 12, 2019, on NPR’s Oregon Public Broadcasting.  It discussed how firefighters suffer health-problems due to inhaling smoke — and its previously-unrecognized toxins — while suppressing wildfires.  The report further noted that even prescribed burns, normally of low-intensity, still emit smoke that has adverse effects in the short and long term.

Wild horses will happily dispatch the dry grass and brush that is the subject of controlled burns and the fodder for uncontrolled burns, thereby protecting the lungs of firefighters and local residents too.

Burns, Jes.  (2019, June 12).  “More Wildfires Bring Focus On How All That Smoke May Harm Firefighters.”  National Public RadioOregon Public Broadcasting.   Retrieved from

Prescribed Burns Damage the Soil

Despite the standard orthodoxy, burns are not necessarily always beneficial.  Two recent studies by University of California-Merced scientists found that even low-intensity fires, such as those typically associated with prescribed burns, can damage soil-structure and organic matter in ways that don’t manifest until later.

Desert Research Institute. “Low-severity wildfires impact soils more than previously believed: Negative effects of low-severity fire on soil structure and organic matter.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 September 2018. <>.

Controlled Burns Can Get Out of Control

Intentionally-set fires can get out of control.  Just last summer here in Florida, what was supposed to be a controlled burn ignited a wildfire that destroyed 36 homes.

Fire Prevention — Saves Firefighters’ Lives Also

Although fighting wildfires is dangerous work, the increasing number and severity of those fires and the lengthening of the fire season are having an adverse impact on firefighters’ emotional health.  The incidence of suicides among firefighters is now 38% higher than that of the general population.  It is incumbent on BLM to use preventive methods to avoid burdening the already-stressed fire crews.  Wild horses should be allowed to carry out that function.  They work for food.

Deploy Wild Horses for Fuels-Abatement Duty in Remote Areas

Below are excerpts from the correspondence sent by William E. Simpson II, a citizen-reformer, to the respective administrators of BLM and USFS, with a copy having been sent to various Congressional Representatives and County Commisssioners, regarding the placement of wild horses in remote forested areas to carry out reduction of excess dry vegetation to mitigate wildfires.  Although Mr. Simpson focuses on Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument in Jackson County, Oregon, the same concept could apply elsewhere on Federal lands on Oregon and throughout the West.

RE: Solution For Hazardous Fuel Buildup and Fire Prevention in BLM Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument & Other Forests

Thank you for offering to provide the new BLM Director Mr. Bruce Rittenhouse with the hard copies of the research and Natural Wildfire Abatement And Forest Protection Plan (the ‘Plan’), which posits a novel solution for ultimately eliminating the corralled wild horse issue and in the same move, providing taxpayers with $4-Billion in wildfire fuel mitigation services over a 15-year period. Details here:

I am copying this email directly to Director Rittenhouse to alleviate you of printing it and the URL linked assets.

This plan, even in its pilot testing phase, would immediately relieve some pressure on grazing capacity of existing grazing allotments and HMAs and significantly reduce wild horse numbers in proximity to many livestock operations, all of which is accomplished in one cash positive move for the BLM.

*The total estimated costs of just the 2017 California wildfires was $180-Billion:

*The 2017 Oregon wildfires alone put 3.3-Million tons of the deadly toxic gas carbon monoxide into the atmosphere, exceeding the CO emissions of all on-road vehicles.

USFS estimated fuel treatment costs:

~$400/acre for fuel treatment using prescribed burns (puts more toxic smoke into our air); mechanized costs

~$800/acre, and these treatments apply only in areas accessible (terrain) and suited to such treatments where it’s not prohibited (methods are barred by regulations in most Wilderness Areas, some of which burn catastrophically now with greater frequency and severity due to prodigious fuels ripened and un-grazed due to severely depleted western black tail deer populations, ready for combustion during longer warmer summers).

Therefore, even if permitted in the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument (in Jackson County, OR), the most cost effective fuel treatment (prescribed burning) would be ~$23.2-Million annually. While wildfire grazing using horses is virtually free.

As you will read in the email herein below, ODF District Forester Dave Larson who oversees the fire suppression contract for the BLM’s 58,000 acre (nominal size) Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument in Jackson County Oregon attests to the exigent wildfire hazard in subject BLM forest. He also cites the potential value of deploying wild horses from holding corrals from both a fire prevention perspective and economic perspective (preventing fire saves lives, trees, wildlife, property and wildfire suppression costs for the BLM).

There is a legal path to the implementation of a novel fuel mitigation solution under existing law, that was passed to the former BLM Director Brian Steed on Nov. 29th 2017 by Congressman Greg Walden. That letter can be found here:

Secondly the situation in the CSNM is exigent; it could be lost in its entirety due to catastrophic wildfire at anytime.

All professional assessments of the fuel loading in the CSNM have stated that the Monument is choked with grass and brush fuels (fine fuel that carries wildfire hot and fast to other heavier fuels). This places the entirety of that forest wilderness at grave and imminent risk for total devastation from catastrophic wildfire. And such a catastrophic wildfire could easily devastate an old west town like Ashland, Oregon (home of Southern Oregon University and the Shakespearean Festival, also in the same County as the CSNM.

Under restrictive regulations for protected wilderness areas, there are virtually no fuel abatement tools available; no chemicals, no motorized equipment, and no prescribed burns. This arguably leaves wildfire grazing as the last hope for grass and brush mitigation.

The reason the grasses and brush are so prodigious is that the populations of western black tail deer are severely depleted (down over 2.2 million animals over the past 5-decades in OR and CA). The best science informs us that when there is a depletion of large-bodied herbivores, catastrophic wildfire evolves due to un-grazed fuels.

  1. In rugged remote, predator-filled wilderness areas with poor access like the CSNM, livestock become predator meat.

The additional excessive costs of wildfire grazing using livestock to ranchers providing livestock in any wildfire grazing role far out weighs even the economic proposition of ‘free grazing’ in these areas. On the other hand, wild horses are virtually free from the BLM’s own corrals (and USFS corrals), and deploying them into wilderness areas in wildfire fuel abatement roles makes each horse so deployed worth $72,000.00 in fuel mitigation value (equivalent labor cost per acre) over their 15-year expected lifespan in the wilderness, as detailed in this article:

  1. Environmental issues: Wildfire grazing using livestock versus wild horses

Most protected wilderness areas are ecologically sensitive areas with native species flora that would be stripped from the land along with seeds by grazing ruminant cattle and/or sheep due to their highly effective complex digestive systems. Horses are monogastric (incomplete) digestors and reseed areas grazed with intact native plant seed that is deposited with humus and localized microorganisms back onto the ground as scat, all of which are highly beneficial and restorative to soils; more here:

I conclude with a quote from a letter I received directly from the Head of the USFS – Ms. Victoria Christensen on June 7th, 2018:

Large grazers are a valuable resource in reducing the flammable grass and brush components within our ecosystems…. It is true wild horses and burros, and other grazers, can impact vegetation and fuel loading.  In specific locations, grazing can be a tool to reduce fine fuel loading.


BLM-Oregon, and its Burns District Office in particular, need to stop this Spay-Study nonsense.  You have wasted everyone’s time and cost the taxpayers probably hundreds of thousands dollars so far on this scheme.

It’s time to do some real research that will advance human knowledge and help sustain the environment.  I recommend starting with an Ecological Site Inventory (ESI), as described in this letter.

It’s also time that BLM-Oregon recognize what valuable assets wild horses are.  With climate craziness and more-intense wildfires Out West, BLM should be increasing the number of wild horses to graze down what would otherwise become 1-hour fuels sparking into a wildfire.  Your state’s abundant population of mountain lions will keep the herds right-sized.  Just like the wild horses, the cats work for free.

It is time to stop falsifying data in order to increase revenue.  That is dishonest, even criminal behavior.  It cannot go on.  Eventually, you will be called to account by parties way above my level — those with real authority.


Marybeth Devlin

Miami, FL 33155-2916


Posted by on July 18, 2019 in Uncategorized


Wild Horses, Burros, Honesty and Two Corrupt Government Agencies, and a Corrupt Grazing Permit Program; Our Wildlife and Natural Resources and Our Food Chain Supplements in Danger

Let’s talk about America’s Public Lands, then Let’s talk about the corrupt Grazing Permit Program that is simply destroying Our Natural Resources,and the government agencies in charge of Over-site — simply not doing what they receive taxpayer money to accomplish — safeguarding our Natural Resources and Wildlife.

“The fact is, and a truth, there exists so much taxpayer money within the Unnecessary and antiquated Grazing Permit Program, that “All” that take part within it are “Corrupt” and taking advantage of a program where no Over-Site nor Administrative perusal takes place.  And the unbelievable atrocities, conducted by those who rant and rave they are Humane (within their context the term absurd in total), become ridiculous and unacceptable entirely.

The Pesticide PZP program, for example, within the corrupted Grazing Permit Program on Public Lands, is just as ridiculous, and the things they do not tell you, Facts, are that this breed-control situation has no validity, nor should be used on Our Public Lands, as no research validates it as being safe in Wilderness Areas . . .

Our Food Chain Key Elements for supplemental nutrition, grains, grasslands, et al., within the Natural Resources that provides it, once again and continuously now, in Danger of being polluted and poisoned, as the cattle industry and Oil and Mining do daily now (lack of competent and truthful management and science unavailable and become the direct causation) —

Our Food Chain – Our Natural Resources — We Decide . . . Our decisions to decide what goes on out there, not a corrupt set of government agencies, as the Bureau of Land Management and the USDA Forestry apparently are today.

The darkness that lurks around the corner, as we see in politics today, is that we are conditioned to accept the fact Retirement and Social Security, Medical Expenses for the Common American, as well as Veteran Benefits and many more Budgets cut — to randomly supply this unnecessary Grazing Permit Program in the $-Billions of taxpayer dollars.

It is just time for All American’s to Stand Up and Say No More!” — Ultimately common sense and the truth will win . . . John Cox, Cascade Journal



Wild Horses, Politician’s Lies, Corrupt Government Agencies Simply Ignored

Now is the time to take a look at some of the “Skewed” and untruthful Evidence that Politicians, in order to appease Special Interests and Lobby Groups, give to the Public, and other senators and congressmen, in the matters of our Public Lands in America.  The photos of the starving Wild Horses (offered as evidence for “all” wild horses starving on Public Lands), for example, when reviewed, we find to be unique — only out of Cold Creek, Nevada.  They are not, and I repeat, NOT indicative of the Wild Horses on Our Public Lands, what so ever.  Yes, a wayward and oturight lie, yet another of many, that costs taxpayer’s $-millions of dollars yearly, and the sacrifice?

Budget Cuts in many other areas that actually assist the American, the common American, retired people, school lunches, et al., and Veteran’s Programs alike, to name a few cut-budgets, in order to subsidize an antiquated and unnecessary Grazing Permit Program for Welfare Rancher’s on our Public Lands.  The Evidence shows us, factually, their beef products from Our Public Lands, merely have a less than 1% Sales of their beef product (Domestic Sales Receipts show us this evidence to be fact — DOI Technical Reports, USDA Stats, et al.); whereas, the throw away margins alone show us, factually, there exists no need in America for this program to exist — throw away beef products yearly (as USDA Statistics show) reach a high at times of 34% and a low aspect of 26% yearly.

So why do we even have a Grazing Permit Program, that is subsidized in the $-Millions by taxpayer’s, and tax write-offs mainly for Billionaires and Corporate Ranches?  By the way, these Corporate Ranchers pay little to no taxes at all, and, here is the corrupt situation as definable in anyone’s ethical standard or description of corruption and by Law — they receive from taxpayer dollars, under the cloak of many outright lies (Fraud) and misinformation to the public and under the supposed legal aspect of a Grazing Permit Program.  But this exists only as long as no one really asks any questions about it, or actually look into the Grazing Permit Program and obtain a thorough and honest report — which has not existed up to this point, or when the flamboyant aspects of corruption often “Scream” of illegal and corrupt activity, and the politicians and lawmakers heads simply turn away, more often than not.  These photos, that are used to explain the plight of the Wild Horses, that in reality simply does not exist. . .

Similar to Laundering money, this program provides wayward and corrupt government agencies, politicians, and others the money, unobserved, because there is essentially no over-site what so ever, and finding the Administrator of it, is near impossible.  No one claims it.

The Welfare Rancher’s paid, by taxpayer money, hundreds of thousands of dollars, if not millions yearly, and the Corruption on our Public Lands, and destruction from cattle and wayward industry (our Natural Resources and Food Chain supplements being destroyed, yet ignored in total) that go unchecked, is quite lucrative — and the Wild Horses get the blame for it all, and keep in mind there is no evidence to support Bureau of Lands Management’s Wild Horse Herd Counts, as well as no evidence to support any of their Grazing Permit Programs being necessary at all, for America!

Biology and it’s reality is a good reference here, more evidence, that shows the impossibility of an over-population of Wild Horses even exist.

How best to describe them?  If the Starvation Theory, brought up by those politician’s that promote Special Interests Only, on Our Public Lands?  Well, if they were taken to Federal Court — these photos would not be acceptable as evidence.  Why?  Because they are not applicable to Wild Horses on Our Public Lands, but a unique occurrence at and around the proximity of Cold Creek, Nevada.  In another word, they are not representative of much of anything, other than for a few Wild Horses in one area, only.

On the other hand, and many have pointed this out on several occasions, we have solid evidence to show, and a Court would receive specifically this evidence, that the Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse Counts Fraudulent, and as stated previously, many of them Biologically Impossible to develop or occur, on our Public Lands.  So does the over-population of Wild Horses truly exist, and is there truthful evidence about not only the over-population, as well as wild horses starving on Public Lands?  No, none what so ever. and all but one of these photos is merely limited to Cold Creek, Nevada, and when we look into the Cold Creek situation, we find only a few of the Wild Horses there were sickly, as we see the last photos here, of other Cold Creek Horses, quite healthy.

(This photo represents the all of the other Cold Creek Horses, as well as all other Wild Horses, 99%, that are on our Public Lands)  It is simply time to take a far better look at the Grazing Permit Program on Our Public Lands, and for many reasons, and in particular, the Corruption that exists, and these senators and congressmen and Corporations, all taking part.

There is a whirlwind of taxpayer money out there, and attracts the Corrupt.  It is simply an unregulated circumstance, no Administrative Over-site situations to speak of, other than to spend taxpayer money, and the abuse toward Wild Horses and Burros out of control as well.  The WH&B Act of 1971 violated constantly, and the WH&B Board, put into place of Over-Site, has been taken over by Special Interest Groups only, that have direct involvement in the Corruption.

How do we know some of this to lack evidence at all, in the matters of Wild Horses starving on Public Lands?  Easily, we asked BLM for DNA, and told them we would come out and obtain a few samples to send to our lab. . .  It was obvious to other biologists that Pesticide Poisoning occurred (one of many options that could have developed into fatal-sickness), and all the glaring symptoms physically, seemed to have occurred and to the knowledgeable eye when the photos scrutinized logically and without prejudice or bias.  But what happened?  Well, the Wild Horses we were to take samples from a day later — disappeared; we then we found they killed and burned the evidence we wanted to gather — the Cold Creek Horses in the photos . . . before we could get there.

Conclusively, do we have a Wild horse Over-population problem?  None what so ever!    It goes unproven, and only lies and perverse over-counts all the whole ignoring simple biology, replaces “fact” . . .  as well, only biological inconsistencies and impossibilities exist, within the very dynamic of the Wild horse population estimations. Although, quite costly to the taxpayer’s of Our Country — corrupt management the causation . . .

What we do find, is many motives for a cohesive collaboration of corrupt entities, to include politicians as well, as the free-for-all availability of taxpayer money certainly a motivation, an incentive – especially for those not ethically or morally inclined.  But when no Over-site exists, and irresponsible conduct has no checks-n-balance systems, and people not having to take responsibility for their actions, then we have an ongoing corrupt program, such as the Grazing Permit Program on Public Lands of today.

Obviously, change is needed sooner than later, for a proper management of our nation’s Public Lands and Forests, as the corruption remains quite telling, and actually “Screams and Shouts” for help, and no one in authority listens . . . as their comfort zone may become intrusive, and oh yes, easier to perpetuate the myth, rather than look at the reality!


Two Wild Burros – Dropped from a Government Contractor Helicopter Dramatizes Onlookers and Burro Herd

Ladies and Gentlemen, a Flash from the Past — allow me to introduce to you the real Bureau of Land Management, and how they award their private contractor to ABUSE, DESTROY, MURDER, AND EVEN PSYCHOPATHIC SITUATIONS OF DOING SOME PRETTY SICK THINGS. Yes I have posted this before, and will not forget, as it continues today, and they assume, because they are government employees as well as government contractors, that this is okay to do, and they got paid by BLM $110,000+ thousand, to do this to Burros!  (I.e. USA Gov Spend link —


Talk about people that should be thrown out of the United States, here are some, specifically, and others like them!


At one with me? Ready, then respond! Or you may have already read it — This is something the news should be letting people know about, as it shows, in the LIMELIGHT, just exactly what BLM DOI and the USDA Forestry are all about!

This story is worth sharing, as it explains exactly, the ongoing situation of those in our government, and the cold-blooded contractors that they supposedly are qualified to perform adequately, but we find that is a LIE as well. and we pay them for crap like this — our tax dollars, to do this?????

Mustang Sally Summers — Sadly , stories from BLM employees about simply shooting Burros because blm could not move them surfaces .

We have burros from Wheeler peak in Nevada, where Wild Burros were roped and air lifted by helicopter. To the horror of the public, the ropes broke, sending the burro to the ground screaming in pain.

Contractor & BLM employees rush to put the burro out of agony.

A short time later, the public still wheeling from a traumatic death, watch another burro being air lifted out of the mountainous terrain.

Holding their breath agitated & anxious about the unsafe procedure of the capture of these sensitive creatures. Another burro crashes to the ground. The same screams of pain, from this burro as well, ended with single gunshot.

This information was given to me by the observer that was so traumatized by the scene & sound of the Wild Burros screams, as they’re bones broke on impact, they wondered if it was accidental. The rest of that little Band of Burros was profoundly affected by the abuse. . .

If we cannot place these government agencies into perspective, end their corruption, and they do not except Ethics, nor Humane Actions toward Wild Horses and Burros, then they should NOT be within the tax paid status of an American Government Agency.  This simple.

Granted, this is Bureau pof Land Management History, but we as Taxpayer’s need to know what this agency is about, and where Our Taxpayer money is going, and who to!  This is unacceptable behavior, work ethic, and really unacceptable as a Public and Government employee situation!

THESE TYPES OF UNACCEPTABLE SITUATIONS CONTINUE TODAY, WITH BOTH WILD HORSES AND WILD BURROS!  This is why the situation above, posted here — to let other American’s know what is ongoing on Our Public Lands that the BLM does not tell us!


Wild Horse and Burro Program Corruption – BLM and USDA Forestry Shoot Horses and Worse

“Three choices in life: Give Up, Give In, or Give It All You Got!  Because when you bond with a horse, and they respect you, they will give you All They Got!  Those who do not understand this, remain intimidated, and they fear the horse.”  — Article by John Cox, Cascades

Let’s take a look at, and discuss a few things here about facts, about deception and distraction, and about disgusting and inexplicable behavior by two government agencies — the Bureau of Lands Management (i.e. BLM) and the USDA Forestry.  Here I reference a culture that requires acknowledgement, that of the bigot, the bias, and the extreme ignorant that, indeed, become employed by the agencies mentioned above.  A culture?  Absolutely, and here is why, as the evidence shows us quite clearly, and by the circumstances that surround them –

  1. We can use the Broken Wildlife Management System of today, and has been broken for quite a few years, as evidence dictates;
  2. We can use the Broken BLM Wild Horse and Burro Program for at least the past 40 years, as evidence shows us quite well;
  3. We can use the Broken BLM Grazing Permit Program, antiquated and costly to tax payers with nothing in return to us at all as tax payers, which, all evidence shows quite distinctly is corrupt in total, as evidence shows us quite well;
  4. We can use the fact that these agencies not only create the corrupt situations, and support them fraudulently, and then becomes quite costly to taxpayer’s, to resolve these created situations from nothing more than a bias-animosity directed toward Wild Horses and Burros, as defined by the evidence of such activity, and a long history of such;
  5. We can use the Broken Qualification and Procurement Procedures within any of these two government agencies, which allow, and use quite readily by the way, bad science, bogus and faulty experimentation, and pesticides used as breed controls, as evidence shows quite well;
  6. We can use the Broken Legal System, and lack of internal Enforcement within both of these agencies, as evidence shows us consistently;
  7. We can use the Broken Science System, within both government agencies, as well as no Competent Data Gathering process for appropriate Scientific Decision Making, non-existent today within either agency and case upon case of Biological Impossibilities, as evidence shows consistently;
  8. We can use the lack of quality Lands Management and the destruction of much of it, and continuously, with no sight for it to end within the immediate future, as evidence;
  9. And many more cases of falsified data, incompetent scientific research, false Environmental Statements, false and impossible Biology, done for nothing more than to increase budgets and complete roundups, and oh so much more, as evidence shows us always. . .

We can use a Baseball analogy here, very significant indeed, and state clearly, we are in the bottom of the ninth inning, bases loaded, and we are four points down – Are we ready to win this game? Or, just sit back, lose it to ignorance and bigotry, and hope for the best in the future, and know the best will not develop, and the worst will overwhelm . . .

Wild Horses and Burros

This story is worth sharing, as it explains exactly, the ongoing situation of those in our government, and the cold-blooded contractors that are supposedly qualified to perform adequately, but we find that is a LIE as well. and we pay them, only the Lord knows why — our tax dollars, to do this?

Sadly, stories from BLM employees about simply shooting Burros because BLM could not move them, as roads were simply unavailable.  Keep in mind here, the Burros were not, and never did or would, bother a living soul where they were located; nor, interfered with anything at all.  And yes, they were destined to be destroyed. . .  The decision originated from bigotry, ignorance, and an abusive necessity formed only from bias.  The decision made to eradicate, and the BLM Contractors paid well and happy to do the dirty deed.

We have burros from Wheeler peak in Nevada, where Wild Burros were roped and air lifted by helicopter. To the horror of the public, the ropes broke.  The Burro shot to the ground, hard.  The Burro screamed in pain.

Both the Contractor’s on the ground and BLM employees rushed to put the burro out of its agony.  Its misery.  Its life essence.

A short time later, the public still wheeling from a traumatic death, watch another burro being air lifted out of the mountainous terrain.

Holding their breath agitated & anxious about the unsafe procedure of the capture of these sensitive creatures. Another burro crashes to the ground. The same screams of pain, from this burro as well, ended with a single gunshot.

This information was given to me by the observer that was so traumatized by the scene & sound of the Wild Burros screams, as they’re bones broke on impact, they wondered if it was accidental. The rest of that little Band of Burros was profoundly affected by the abuse. . .

Can we walk away from this story, and not feel anything?  Nope.  An impossibility for those of us who have a conscious, and defend these animals from such human-based bias and ignorance, that this would even happen to begin with.  But wait, a more telling story, or a BLM District Office, and the activity there, as also witnessed, and many more sight-testimonials, abuse, deranged actions forced upon Wild Horses and Burros and by these government agency employees, exist as well and very prevalent, and evidence = there is simply a lot of it. . .

John: Do you live near Hines, Oregon holding facility?

Shelia: Yes, in Burns, and I drive by there often. Makes my heart sick.

John: Do you often see the corrals full?

Shelia: yes, then a couple of days later, empty, or just a few standing around. Often I see the babies, skinny, and the other day seen one that could hardly standup. I drove by the next day and was going to finally say something to them at their office, but all the horses in that corral, crowded the day before, were all gone. I could not see the road from my tears, and had to pull over.

John: Have you ever spoken to them at all?

Shelia: They just shine people on, and say everything is okay. I try to ignore the corrals, sometimes, because there is just so many that are held there, and I can see them actually, from day to day, deteriorate in health, and I have seen even the larger horses barely able to stand, and they had been there for a while. Then as usual, just disappear. Then more come in and the abuse and lack of care for them starts all over again.

John: Have you lived out here long?

Shelia: Born and raised here, and we really keep our distance from the BLM workers, and their volunteers, sometimes they are just as bad — we hear a lot of them stealing the horses also . . . I never really seen them do it, but I have seen the big trucks come in empty, and leave with a truck full of the horses from there. . .

BLM USDA Forestry Lie About Wild Horse Overpopulation

We can discuss this matter, or very premise of the ongoing corruption, until blue in the face, but the fact is this, all of this abuse, all of this bias and bigotry, all of the misinformation to the public, quite honestly costs $-millions.  But in the BLM and Forestry minds, the taxpayers can go to hell – as that is their attitude when confronted with honest, truthful, and factual information.  Suddenly, the honest American Taxpayer becomes what they refer to as a “Fringe Element.”

The non-profits that support these government agencies, corrupt entirely, but they will simply bite their nose off to spite themselves, as blatant ignorance and hypocrisy exists within them, as history shows us well enough.

Taxpayers, who are Veterans, American’s, housewives, husbands of families, and labor people, executives, and the middle class of America – suddenly we have become a “Fringe Element” in Our Own Country, because a pair of very corrupt government agencies say so!  And at Our Expense, and the $-millions of dollars spent on ridiculous roundups for no reasons, other than bigotry, bias, and ignorance.

Because the bias and bigotry extreme, we see extremely bad decisions being made, and large budgets, actually derived from this same type of bigotry, dishonesty, corruption, bias, and ignorance and all directed toward other American’s as well as the Wild Horses and Burros.  Amazing they have been able to get away with it for so long, but corruption develops, getting worse over time, until the American Tax Payer steps up and says, ENOUGH!  Getting closer and closer to this situation. . .

Let’s look at one example of several thousand more of the same, which equates to nothing more, nor less, than lies, misinformation, and in accord with our Nation’s Federal Laws = FRAUD, as budgets are developed from these exact numbers, and have been done so, in the past — BLM states biologically and mathematically impossible annual wild horse population rates and here are just a very few, of many false statement examples that BLM has published – to obtain large budgets – money:
High Rock Herd Management Area (HMA) a 107% increase in ONE year (a herd of 447 horses produced 479 successful foals in one year which would require that every single horse – including the stallions! – have more than one surviving foal in one year). The previous year, BLM states that this same HMA had an increase of 138% in ONE year (a herd of 188 horses producing 259 successful foals in one year). Therefore, BLM states that this herd population jumped from 188 horses to 926 horses in two years. Biologically impossible.

The Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971


(PUBLIC LAW 92-195)

  • 1331. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

Congress finds and declares that wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West; that they contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people; and that these horses and burros are fast disappearing from the American scene. It is the policy of Congress that wild free-roaming horses and burros shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death; and to accomplish this they are to be considered in the area where presently found, as an integral part of the natural system of the public lands.

  • 1332. Definitions

As used in this Act-

(a) “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Interior when used in connection with public lands administered by him through the Bureau of Land Management and the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with public lands administered by him through the Forest Service;

(b) “wild free-roaming horses and burros” means all unbranded and unclaimed horses and burros on public lands of the United States;

(c) “range” means the amount of land necessary to sustain an existing herd or herds of wild free-roaming horses and burros, which does not exceed their known territorial limits, and which is devoted principally but not necessarily exclusively to their welfare in keeping with the multiple-use management concept for the public lands;

(d) “herd” means one or more stallions and his mares; and

(e) “public lands” means any lands administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management or by the Secretary of Agriculture through the Forest Service. . .

  • 1333. Powers and duties of Secretary

(a) Jurisdiction; management; ranges; ecological balance objectives; scientific recommendations; forage allocations adjustments

All wild free-roaming horses and burros are hereby declared to be under the jurisdiction of the Secretary for the purpose of management and protection in accordance with the provisions of this Act. The Secretary is authorized and directed to protect and manage wild free-roaming horses and burros as components of the public lands, and he may designate and maintain specific ranges on public lands as sanctuaries for their protection and preservation, where the Secretary after consultation with the wildlife agency of the State wherein any such range is proposed and with the Advisory Board established in section 1337 of this Act deems such action desirable. The Secretary shall manage wild free-roaming horses and burros in a manner that is designed to achieve and maintain a thriving natural ecological balance on the public lands. He shall consider the recommendations of qualified scientists in the field of biology and ecology, some of whom shall be independent of both Federal and State agencies and may include members of the Advisory Board established in section 1337 of this Act. All management activities shall be at the minimal feasible level and shall be carried out in consultation with the wildlife agency of the State wherein such lands are located in order to protect the natural ecological balance of all wildlife species which inhabit such lands, particularly endangered wildlife species. Any adjustments in forage allocations on any such lands shall take into consideration the needs of other wildlife species which inhabit such lands.

(b) Inventory and determinations; consultations; overpopulation’s; research study; submittal to Congress

(1) The Secretary shall maintain a current inventory of wild free-roaming horses and burros on given areas of the public lands. The purpose of such inventory shall be to: make determinations as to whether and where an overpopulation exists and whether action should be taken to remove excess animals; determine appropriate management levels of wild free-roaming horses and burros on these areas of the public lands; and determine whether appropriate management levels should be achieved by the removal or destruction of excess animals, or other options (such as sterilization, or natural controls on population levels). In making such determinations the Secretary shall consult with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, wildlife agencies of the State or States wherein wild free-roaming horses and burros are located, such individuals independent of Federal and State government as have been recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, and such other individuals whom he determines have scientific expertise and special knowledge of wild horse and burro protection, wild-life management and animal husbandry as related to rangeland management.


In conclusion, I find the Bureau of Land Management as well as the USDA Forestry, bound in misinformation as well as lies to the general Public.  Why is this?

Well, we find a tremendous amount of taxpayer money is given to them, within their budget, that if the Wild Horses and Burros Managed correctly, without the lies, bigotry, bias, and total ignorance, would indeed cost very little to maintain, and these budgets would simply not exist at all.

Competent decision making very relevant in accord with the use of taxpayer money – on the other hand, decisions based upon bigotry, bias, and ignorance is quite costly to tax payers, as well as wildlife, our environment, our natural resources and food chain supplements, and our Wild Horses and Burros, and should be avoided.

  1. These agencies Create the over-population numbers out of mid-air, as much of their statistical data remains Biologically inappropriate as well as impossible, and truthfully, no evidence available to confirm their stats at all, other than their extreme bigoted and bias opinions of such;
  2. Both agencies “create” the problems of the Wild Horses destruction (cattle being destructive is evidentiary, wild horses being destructive, is imaginary) of Public and Forestry Lands by no provable data that exists, and when questioned, they simply call the individual asking, part of the “Fringe Element” – which, does not exist either, but rather, their continued bigoted and bias opinion only escalates the hatred and animosity, or what we call the detraction’s to coverup their corrupt behaviors, lies, and misinformation to the public;
  3. The data collected on Range Lands and Forestry, is fraudulent, or due to cattle being left out of the equation, nearly 6 years ago, as requested by the Administrators in both of these government agencies, all other “hooved animals”, mainly horses and burros, blamed for all destruction of Our Lands, and cattle left out of the data, entirely – even though “98% of the destruction is directly related to over-populations of cattle in many Public and Forestry Lands areas;
  4. Ironically, all the other problems, essentially created from the main problem, i.e. over-population of Wild Horses and Burros, which remains nothing more than created to acquire budgets. . . and of course the attrition-distractions and wayward $-budgets, using taxpayer money to do so. . .

As the Wild Horse and Burro Act shows us, quite well, the Wild Horses and Burros have a LEGAL RIGHT TO ROAM OUR PUBLIC AND FORESTRY LANDS – Cattle and other specific industrial development, have a privilege only, and taken-away if and when violated . . . as they use-up our Natural Resources, and must be regulated honestly, which they are not by either of the aforementioned government agencies.  Yes, in America we have a corruption problem in government.

Essentially, we have allowed bigotry, bias, as well as a profound ignorance, into the decision making process of these government agencies, to accomplish nothing more than cover-up the lack of ethics, and the corrupt budgets generated from lie after lie.  Making decisions upon these elements derived from a unresolved human-problem, such as bigotry, bias, and ignorance, and just never works out toward any beneficial outcome; although, truthful science does work, and is needed in our decision making process.  There is no doubt, the faster we obtain it, the faster our wildlife and American’s benefit from government, rather than what is ongoing now, and no one benefits except a few . . . and this situation is just “Wrong” on many different levels.


Wild Horses and Public Lands Destruction — Our Food Chain and Natural Resources Polluted

Wild Horses have a permanent place on our Public Lands, within our minds, as well as legally.  The truth is our nation’s icons, Wild Horses on our Public Lands, are being wiped out by industrialists, by welfare ranchers with their cattle and sheep, by hunters, and ironically non-profit charitable organizations advocating animals’ protection but abusing them by darting, or use of breed controls, based upon industry and their lies about wild horse over-population.

These are people that wave the American Flag, yet hypocritical, as the fact of wiping out an icon such as the Wild Horses, apparently paramount and on their minds, for their special interests, or in particular, their monetary interests . . .  Ethics and Federal Laws tossed-out the window when it comes to money $$$ and influencing their life style.

With a solid-ground, observable by their actions, of pathological mind-sets, and soon we have more and more threats, real threats, to our nation’s Food-Supply, and what is also referred to as well, Federal Lands.  The Bureau of Land Management and the USDA Forestry are not, and never have done so, managed these lands competently; that is, there is no Lands Management paradigm associated with longevity nor competence, when coming to actually Public Lands Oversight.  This also includes Regulatory Oversight, which is accomplished hardly ever, and the Federal Laws that seek proper management over these lands, simply not enforced — what so ever.  Now we are looking at the result of No Oversight, no situation of Law Enforcement, and this develops into a drastic situation – Contamination of our Food-Supply, reaching dangerous levels  . . .

  1. In Louisiana, 17 cows died after an hour’s exposure to spilled fracking fluid, which is injected miles underground to crack open and release pockets of natural gas. The most likely cause of death: respiratory failure.
  2. In New Mexico, hair testing of sick cattle that grazed near well pads found petroleum residues in 54 of 56 animals.
  3. In northern central Pennsylvania, 140 cattle were exposed to fracking wastewater when an impoundment was breached. Approximately 70 cows died, and the remainder produced only 11 calves, of which three survived.
  4. In western Pennsylvania, an overflowing wastewater pit sent fracking chemicals into a pond and a pasture where pregnant cows grazed: Half their calves were born dead. Dairy operators in shale-gas areas of Colorado, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Texas have also reported the death of goats.

This was just the noteworthy beginnings from years back, and we see many more dead Wild Horses on our rangelands where Law is clear – their home lands, their Foals dead, Stallions left to bleed-out after castration, or horses shot and killed, and ALL on the Rangelands, the Mountains, the flat-Lands and valleys, and mostly where there is Energy sites, Fracking sites, overpopulation’s of cattle, pasture lands, and many areas where industry or agricultural pesticides used, fertilizers used, and growth hormones used, and pesticides for particular breed-control of wildlife species, — and the truth is, the wildlife being wiped out or darted with poisons, actually needed within Ecological Zones to provide health and longevity within our Wilderness and Natural areas . . . of course, when Our Nation’s Public Lands managed properly, but are not at all today.

Intermixed, this all could be a very dangerous cocktail for all human’s and animals alike – the pollution, extraordinary – and direct-effects to our nation’s food-chain elements, water, and air become very dangerous to all. These government agencies, when confronted with these situations, simply raise the —

“Acceptable Limits of Regulatory Oversight”, then stating everything is okay and it is simply “Fringe-Elements” creating havoc and unrest . . . Our nation’s grasslands, grains, and meat supply remain poisoned or contaminated with human-made pollutants, which over-flows into water supplies both surface and underground supplies, and on it goes . . . The chain-of-events in place, and there is essentially nothing, or no one, stopping it.


In 1957, a research scientist named McConnell noted that the “development of oil and gas resources, as well as pesticides used in prime cattle lands, combined with changes in technologies, have brought unexpected hazards for which a precedent has not been established and toxicological information is not available.” 

Unfortunately, this gap in knowledge remains quite large even today, where truth is nothing more than a joke to industrialists, bankers, and government agencies alike.  But we do see interesting developments, in attempts at covering-up some of these tragic events, and from the Bureau of Land Management, as well as our nation’s USDA Forestry.  Many of us in the field, find more and more dead wildlife and livestock, ironically it is inclusive of cattle, sheep, wild horses, Elk, deer, and such small critters as raccoons, skunks, and other rodents, and many more species.

What these animals have in common, is the fact Keystone Predators as well as insect predators, have no interest in these dead animals, at all.  Maggots, normally on sun-rotted meat, simply are not there, and over days an untouched bloated carcass, as well as some having exploded, and nothing – no predation, neither specialty insects nor maggots.

To say this is not-normal, is a truth beyond all other truth, or deceptions to cover it all up.  Then suspicions become of paramount significance, and we start to search for consistencies. . . out of necessity, to keep our food-chain wholesome, and to save our Wild Horses at the same time (i.e. among other wildlife), who in today’s convoluted government management ideologies, get the blame for it all.

When the Wild Horses destroyed, and sent to extinction, our civilization soon to follow, a metaphor conclusive in “fact” and sadly to us all, of noticeable proportion . . .

Ironically, and what we find in remote areas on our rangelands and forests, Wild Horses, to include a Mare’s Foals (many observations of such), are not only left untouched, on rangelands or in the mountains, but not even so much as a track around the bodies from a cougar, from a bear, from wolves or bobcats.  The poisoned, and radio-active (and other poisons and pesticides et. Al.) wildlife scent — the “red-alert” to all others — Stay Away; except humans . . . profits the rule of order . . .

Exposed livestock “are making their way into the food system, and it’s very worrisome to us,” another Research Biologist named Bamberger says. “They live in areas that have tested positive for air, water, and soil contamination. Some of these chemicals appear in milk and meat products made from these animals.”


Pesticide poisoning to wildlife may result from acute or chronic exposure, via secondary exposure or through indirect effects to the animal.  This is why regulatory measures set in place to “regulate the handling” and the areas where it can be used – when neglected, in truth harmful activity develops . . . which is a reality the ignorant folks like to set-aside and pretend do not exist.  Mostly used in Breed Control, or “Over-Population” decrease — we conclude, from observation as well as logistical lands mass and wildlife availability, that pesticides damage ecosystems, damage or harm to non-target plants and animals, decrease bio diversity, decline populations or even cause extinction of species i.e. Wild Horses and any other predator or hooved animal.

Besides this pesticide “Mess Up” — food chains and webs infected, but also simply disrupt the natural balance in ecosystems; therefore, it is necessary that a strict vigil should be maintained during pest control operations, to minimize the after effects of pesticides and to save the environment and natural balance in ecosystem, which we discover is “ignored” most often . . . ignorance at its very worst, poisoning Our Nation’s Food-Chain . . . and no one admits it but all know, how could they not know?

Over the past few years, we have seen the Pesticide PZP, used in wilderness areas as well as ecological zones, and used irresponsibly.  We find, in the United States and in Canada, the “darts and containers” of this Pesticide (e.g. a bag of 43 darting containers and darts tossed into a creek, in Oregon, and also the same amount found in Canada Creekside, and in Nevada as well, near water outlets and in rangelands where horses’ Darted), in areas where testing of this pesticide were simply not done – sales the motivation and not safety, but rather waived, as EPA Forms show us quite distinctly.

Again, yet another situation, similar to oil and energy situations stated above, and currently adding the use of breed controls, registered as Pesticides, found more and more in wilderness areas – i.e. wild horses, believe it or not, were reintroduced congressionally, as pests and as livestock, and we find the Humane Society of the United Sates as well as supposed non-profit charitable organizations, not only supported these endeavors, then lied also about the Wild Horses population on our Public lands, then using Pesticides for Birth Rate Controls – so much for the “charitable” designation and what it used to mean within the non-profit world, today it means “profits” over all else, and that includes over integrity as well as ethics, sadly. . .

In birds, exposure can impact the bird’s ability to sing and therefore decrease its chances of successfully attracting a mate or establishing a territory, impacts the birds care for its young, causing the nestling to starve.  Some pesticides are endocrine disrupters, causes failure of development in organism, reproduction behavior, immune system and neurological problems, as well as the development of cancer.  Researchers have found that the toxic effects of low-level combinations of certain chemical pesticides can be greater than the sum of the effect of the individual components.  Studies show a range of altered behaviors including mating and parenting, nest building, activity level, predator avoidance and foraging.

Pesticides may impact wildlife through secondary poisoning when an animal consumes prey species that contain pesticide residues e.g.  Birds of prey becoming sick after feeding on an animal, that is dead or dying from acute exposure to a pesticide, and the accumulation and movement of persistent chemicals in wildlife food chain.

Pesticides may also impact wildlife indirectly when a part of its habitat or food supply is modified, e.g. pesticides may reduce food, cover, and nesting sites needed by insect, bird and mammal population; insecticides may diminish insect populations fed on by bird or fish species; insect pollinators may be reduced, thereby affecting plant pollination.  Honey bees are important pollinators of many food crops. Pollination is vital to food production; approximately one third of all human food production is dependent on pollinators. Researchers found that due to insecticidal impact, estimated pollution by honey bees’ losses to food production, which is directly related with economy of nation.

  1. Acute Poisoning Short exposure causes kill wildlife e.g. Fish kills caused by pesticide residues carried to ponds, streams or rivers by surface runoff or spray drift, bird die caused by foraging on pesticide treated vegetation granules, baits, seeds or insects. These poisoning can be substantiated by analyzing tissues or by biochemical investigation processes.
  2. Chronic Poisoning Exposure of wildlife over an extended period of time to pesticide levels not immediately lethal may result in chronic poisoning e.g. Bird mortality resulted from chronic exposure of organo-chlorine insecticides on reproduction in certain birds of prey.
  3. Secondary Poisoning Pesticides may impact wildlife through secondary poisoning when an animal consumes prey species that contain pesticide residues e.g. Birds of prey becoming sick after feeding on animal, that is dead or dying from acute exposure to a pesticide, and (2) the accumulation and movement of persistent chemicals in wildlife food chain.

CONCLUSION (Part 1 of 4 Parts)

Today, and in the United States, our concern is the destruction of our natural resources and our wildlife, indirectly or directly – due to complete ignorance about the pesticide being used, by government agencies, non-profit organizations, and under false-pretense. . .

Often, with today’s government agencies, developed is the occurrence of more and more “outright lies”, in this case the lies, to essentially cover-up fraudulent activity directly involving the categorical misinformation, or lies, about the Wild Horse on Our Public Lands, being over-populated.  The “facts” show us they are not over-populated on our Public Lands.  Once again, a metaphor or negative conclusion when government agencies involved, that outreach to the very basis of Our Nation’s Polluted Food-Supply.

We need to establish more truth within government, regulatory measures to oversee “government contracts” or reasons for “budgets” and oversite within procurement before taxpayer money spent on nothing more than lies, for special interests or conflict of interests; which, is very abundant today within the Public Lands Management realm.

We must then Mitigate the ongoing destruction, on our Public Lands and about our nations wild horses (which should be preserved and built upon, not abused, darted, then sent to slaughter) with truthful non-special-interest driven-data, developing a quality hypothesis-driven science; this, in order to support decisions, rather than random and monetary decision-making from no data to little data, or misinterpreted data through bigoted-reasoning, bias, or from total ignorance —  profoundly, and also in today’s government agencies that manage our Public Lands; whereas, ignorance and bigotry, with strong bias, often governs the decision making process and especially within our Lands Management agencies, costing taxpayer’s insurmountable dollars and cents, that are needed in other realms of America. . .

Research and Written by — John Cox, Cascades


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