Author Archives: Photographer and Journalist

About Photographer and Journalist

It is time to embrace wisdom, as ignorance is inexcusable, do I write about and photograph nature to convey its significance to us all. My opinions are conveyed from life, and are just what they are with no excuses. Just a simple thought here and there, take it or leave it.

Wild Horses: Under-Populated Species yet sent to slaughter and breed controls used upon them

These Wild Horse extinction and slaughter mind-sets existing today within our society, discussed below, seem to run parallel with one another, as the end-result the same – No longer will Wild Horses run freely on America’s Lands. . . Perhaps one can concede that America has lost its last Iconic Symbol of what America is about, and has been the Beacon for the World – which is – “Freedom”, but the reality? Well, it is being sent to slaughter or sterilized out of existence. . . This is very-telling about where we are at, within America right now – Change Needed and Right Now —  John Cox, Cascade Journal

Despite all of the dramatic rhetoric we see, daily now, on wild horse populations on our Public and Federal Lands, the FACTS and EVIDENCE remains quite clear – In Reality, there Exists No Wild Horse Over-population at all and yet there exists people that want to continue Breed-Control programs on Our Nation’s Under-populated species of Wild Horses. The information here speaks from Evidence, their rhetoric speaks from undocumented opinion only, and in the form of sudo-science and outright lies, that simply does not exist at all.

In truth, it is very expensive, this unconscionable “Extinction” mind-set cloaked within the corruption of a government Grazing Permit Program for the Cattle industry, which also promotes Slaughter of our Wild Horses.

What we are finding, currently in early 2019, is an overabundance of misinformed and outright lies about wild horse populations. . . Fly-overs, actually being present on the Public and Federal Lands, as well as consistent observation at several large sites, where wild horses “were” located, we now discover either a low-population of wild horses, as well as many Zeroed-Out completely, of wild horses — a sad fact of our present culture based on mythic lies and ignorance  — many “Horse Bands” on many HMA’s, sadly, do not existent any longer.  Almost an all-telling situation of where America is going, downhill and to extinction, symbolically within the wild horse tragedy as well.

Rhetoric and Lies

We find “rhetoric” in the matters of the “Slaughter-Pipeline” conversation has increased, along with several old and worn out excuses for taking wild horses to slaughter . . . This very ignorant classification of being “Livestock” tells us just how arrogantly our political process, as well as how apathetic our Industrial process has become, and assumes these mind-sets as some type of a reality, when indeed the wild horse is of Nobility, of a Stature that represents what America was built upon. . . and taking its freedom with such profound ignorant ravings that lack any type of proof or truth at all . . . Adverse to what America is, or was, about what so ever.

We also find a major flow of misinformed-rhetoric, and even an odd robotic “canned response” in the use of “breed controls” (i.e. Pesticide PZP one of many others) conversation, and within the “Pro-Extinction” groups, that feel taking them to “Extinction” apparently to them, remains far more Humane than slaughter, or just, in fact leaving them alone and on the range itself; whereas, good legitimate science shows us “Moderation” of all wildlife population develop when left alone over time — (i.e. E.O. Wilson and many others) . . .

Pro-Extinction Groups

Ironic, to say the least, is the fact the “Pro-Extinction” groups apparently assume they are saving the wild horses, even though evidence plentiful that shows that to be untrue – but with no evidence supporting this as any type of fact, other than their rhetoric, is quite telling in the matters of just what type of participation many of these groups and their followers or members take.

Ironically, “Pro-Extinction” groups “canned-responses” never admit the “Extinction Conversation” exists, but statistics, observation, combined with a very steady flow of obvious evidence, serves as a continued reminder, that there is not only a lot of confusion from those who never come out to the HMA’s or range at all (e.g. in the inner-circle of legitimate research and observation, we call these people CPWC’s or Couch Potatoes with Computers), but misinformation on wild horse populations in serious error, and are indeed under-populated — yet Breed Controls used upon them, ironically, as if to save them.

Yes, this is very questionable conduct by people, and ignorance alive and well, as we see it on the increase in America – and yes, as ridiculous as it sounds, their mind-set of saving an under-populated species of wildlife by using Breed-Controls quite telling within its “reality” concept and usage.

Percentages’ and Reality

Percentages of population counts, without evidence of any “Control Point” of authentic statistics-gathered, as a basis toward any percentages used within a management paradigm, which “good research” criteria and process always have and within the starting point of any Field Research, in truth, remains non-existent within all research and from Bureau of Land Management (as history shows quite well) Range Management of wild horse populations; which,  promotes a false-type  of scientific research (often referred to as Malicious Science – political agenda driven or special interest information only) that is and remains not-quantifiable, and not backed by neither reference nor any type of precise evidence that could be used within any moderate decision making process.

Conclusively, this deplorable type of research (which is not research at all) does “not” create or develop any type of future or appropriate management decisions.  This is the ways and means of outright Corruption, and with no oversight, this government agency getting away with it quite consistently over the years – at the expense of taxpayer’s money — and many useful programs for the American Public and taxpayer’s, simply left without budgets, and these useful programs discontinued, to cover this BLM Corruption within our Public and Federal Lands, and within their corrupt Grazing Permit Programs, especially.

All of this, in truth, simply enhance the misinformed “wild horse population counts” given to the general taxpayer, and we still see BLM and DOI and their wild horse counts not only flawed, but extremely exaggerated.  So, taxpayer money used, once again, under very corrupt circumstances, and a lot of it —


Posted by on January 7, 2019 in Uncategorized


Inner-View: John Cox Discusses saving Wild Horses and Wildlife


Posted by on December 11, 2018 in Uncategorized


290 Horses Shot and Piled under Tree Limbs and Branches — Now locating more bone-piles on Federal/Public Lands

Darkness develops around an area near Kimberley, Oregon.  290 horses lie dead, mostly remains of bones now, underneath an extravagant pile of tree limbs (on Private Land and cameras guard this area from trespassers) brush, and branches.  Apparent is the gruesome fact, via several witnesses and testimony, the horses shot within the past year.

More apparent, is the line, literally a line of horse bones, shot on Public Lands as well, which “Ups” the shootings to in-excess of 350+ within the past year – all the way to Mt. Misery and on Public Lands as well. We also have found Poaching to be “widespread” in each area, with many deer remains as well as Elk and Bear.

Bureau of Land Management contacted, several times, and state they have no HMA’s in those areas, so it could not be wild horses.  Sadly, we also find the Prineville Area BLM Director being paid off by the Longview Ranch owner (attested by many — Corriente Cattle) – as many of the folks and towns people claim, as well as other witnesses to this fact.

We also discover (within a confirmation process) cattle still being grazed on America’s Public Lands, illegally and contrary to BLM Grazing Permit Contracts, on several levels; which, show October 15, and yearly, is the date “all” cattle to be removed, off of Public and Federal Lands unless otherwise specified within Contract negotiation – This contract shows us no negotiation present nor extensions made available.

The ranch foreman and his wife, both come to town and to this day “Brag” about shooting the horses, and how many horses they have shot over the past year.  Another involved, an Oregon Department of Transportation employee, also “Brags” about shooting the horses, as if it is a “getting even method” of killing horses, and to hell with horse advocates and environmentalists.

Witness after witnesses’ attests to their “shocking statements’, as the horse’s shot were part of a very favored horse herd, running on both Federal/Public Lands and private lands (which places them, despite the reputed blood lineage, within the WH&B Act of 1971 for protection), called the Puddin’ Foot Horse Herd.

The community horrified, and simply feel unsafe with this situation developing in their own backyards so to speak.

This horse herd was a joy for many people in this community to watch, and some would drive out near the areas (where they met their doom), to see them run, play, a pretense of a wild horse herd (the reality is they were of a mixed-blood lineage of several ranch horses and wild horses over the years — Ochecho for one and Steens for another, as everyone knew this as fact), but left unprotected on private lands.  Many had names for every horse in the herd – kids and adults named them, while admiring their stature. (writer’s note: this is very difficult to write, indeed, due to how gruesome this is, as well as how insane this entire situation obviously has become).

The shooting of the horse herd comes as a surprise when first hearing of it.  Many are saddened over the obvious abuse and some assume under the guide of Federal Law Felonies – which, is another yet to be explored fact, but under many abuse laws, and in accord with Federal Law as well, these situations can be reviewed within Federal Court as well as submitted to the Federal Grand Jury also.  Many concerns over Public Safety, assumptive from the participants of these shootings of horses, and so many, as defined as a very Blood-Thirsty set of events over the past months, as it happened every morning, as one shooter bragged to a few others in town.

Trap and Bone Piles in area of: 44′ 43 minutes 45.5 North – 119′ 43minutes 18.6 West Found within a mile . . .

Mt. Misery Bone Piles (chain around base of mountain and valley) 44′ 43 minutes 39.5 North – 119′ 44 minutes 41.0 West

Psychiatrist Responds

I had asked the obvious question to an old Psychiatrist friend – Just how crazy is this, the shooters, and should this community be concerned?

Dr. Chapel responded quick, she remained clinically precise: “This fits all qualification of a Serial Killer Rampage, and within a small group, it does become more dangerous as time moves on, and to the community in that area.  I would not be surprised if “human-remains” found, and located within proximity of the horse bones . . . but forensically, they have yet to go over the bones, DNA, and gather bullets. . . but the mental state of this situation is extraordinary.  I am surprised, and a bit let-down, the authorities have “not” started to investigate . . . as Public Safety is first and foremost their responsibility.”

The authorities in both Wheeler County Sheriff’s Office as well as Grant County Sheriff’s Office have been called, but up to this point no response or call backs obtained.  The same with the BLM Police – All the lands involved, private lands as well as BLM lands, are involved.  The owner of the ranch, living in Reno, Nev., has not responded to any calls up to this point.

Many of us have the coordinates (i.e. GPS) locations, as well as maps directly related to the massive bone piles and chains of horse bones around Mt. Misery and surrounding areas – the dead-horse count is increasing as days move forward, from aerial telemetry and photos.

Many people are now getting more involved in this horrendous situation, and all of us concerned over just how many horses have been killed, both on private lands as well as Federal and Public Lands over there.  Abuse run amok here, obviously.  We will update you upon further circumstances, and will be discussing further, with law enforcement and Federal /authorities again and this coming week — as Our Attorney tells us.


Posted by on November 18, 2018 in Uncategorized


Wild Horse “Foal Rejection” on the Increase — Pesticide PZP disrupts Family Band Behaviors in the Wilds, results in death

“Often we step-aside with our gut-feeling of a wrong being committed, when we do not, or are unable, to qualify a comment made by another, or a group comment. And just as often, we find later, when more information develops, we were wrong not to intercede and stop the situation before a wild horse hurt, or even killed.” — John Cox, Cascade Journal

Often the term Wild Horse brings up many different thoughts, both romantic or emotional and an odd pretense toward training them – and how it is, supposedly, much different than dealing with a domestic – so “they” say.  Reality walks in and says, “Na – patience, perseverance, and being-consistent, and allowing the horse, whether wild or domestic, to be a horse, first and foremost, still remains the answer to all of this.  Slight adjustments arranged, or small modifications perhaps, but nothing to speak of when a knowledgeable individual bond with the horse, wild or not.

Let’s keep this in mind, that indeed, understanding the horse will always be a horse, and nothing else but a horse.  Now let’s go to the range or wilderness areas, where horses, when left alone, do act like horses and within their family bands.  A Quick-Forward here, and while out on the range/wilderness area, we find the introduction of a situation referred to as Pesticide (EPA Registration-by Qualified Science) PZP, or darting for birth-control of a population of wild horses that is not over-populated at all.  Obscure, to say the least, entirely profound say others that acknowledge it is unneeded, as well as quite costly to taxpayer’s – yes, another corrupt organization that finds $ millions in grants to “dart” our wild horses – then there exists a “Reality” that very soon cannot be ignored.

On The Range

We see quite often now, and coincidentally (and we know about coincidence) around the same time Pesticide PZP started to be used around 1994/95 then stopped in 1996 due to BLM admitting irrational inconsistencies, of the PZP, as well as just not working well; and, accountable and credible references as well as testimony, there was an increase in wild horse bone-piles found, most of which were Mare and foal bones, as well as aged wild horses, and crippled wild horses (bones showing us broken legs or broken jaw bones, or bullets to the head, or gut shot with ribs broken from being gut shot) — and spread across the range or in the wilderness areas.  From the knowledgeable conservationist and observer, confirmed and were obvious Mares that died before or during the foaling process complete. . .

Wild Horse Bones on Public and Federal Lands

Fast Forward:  Currently we find many isolated situations where bones of foals, as well as Mare’s and foals together, and yearlings as well, bleached white by the sun.  Very sad, at times, coming across these bone piles. But still self-evident as too circumstance, always.

The problems were unknown at that time.  The more we currently find within the darting areas of Pesticide PZP, and the consistencies, we find quite a few troubling situations, and the disruption of the Family Bands the entire causation.  The causation’s quite clear – interference of an unknown altered product, pig ovaries, genetically altered into a Pesticide – the time-frame far more than just a coincidence, and shows us all clearly, something unexpected is ongoing right now on our Public and Federal Lands from its use. . . or is it unexpected?

Family Band Disturbance

It is just not a question of Mares much too young to foal (i.e. due to Pesticide PZP use also disturbing the Mare’s breeding cycles, breeding much younger than normal), or tend to its new born, or any of the other controversial situations, but the mental state of the Mare itself.

“Foal Rejection”, is a very serious problem, even within domestic horse circumstances, and even when everything is just right in the stable or even in the Vets Stable.  Here in this discussion, we are calling attention to a Range Lands situation, no sterile environment, no human interaction (i.e. beyond the usual 30 minutes), and no antibodies or colostrum (first milk) available, other than the Mare itself; although, myself and others have seen other Mares in the Band provide this (keep in mind that 42% to 50% of foals (previously, but today we see an increase from heavily-observed probability) situations on the range – foal’s die at birth, and which, BLM does not consider this in their wild horse counts what so ever – as a matter of obvious fact, they do not include the Mare’s death either), nor when a confused and stressed very young Mare runs off and leaves its foal, which is an assured death (i.e. septicemia or death are the alternatives when Mare rejects the foal, among other situations).

There exist two significant occasions that have to transpire, on the range as well, for a foal to live; although, we have seen helicopter roundups, also, intercede, and actually run the Mare away from their foal awaiting the next step of birth, for example the colostrum intake, for life.

Did the pilot know of these situations, or not?  They state they know horses, we state if they do, then indeed they are very mentally-sick and deranged people to allow a foal to die, in such an obvious situation – if the knowledge available to them.  Cruelty is their motivation, it seems.  Why do taxpayer’s pay these types of people to manage Our nation’s wild horses?

  1. Within a “natural” motivation, the Mare will approach the foal, then allow it to nurse; and,
  2. There also must be a specific identification as the Mare’s own, toward foal, with no distractions.

We can now advance to when a “Foal Rejection” takes place, and the obvious occurrences.

  1. The Mare accepts and licks the foal, but does not allow suckling;
  2. The Mare ignores the foal, or moves away, or will kick it when approaching;
  3. The Mare literally attacks the foal – quite a dangerous situation which ends, most often, in the foal’s death – but we must also consider these types of – once too Young to foal Mare’s cannot foal again, otherwise the same situation exists – assured death of foal, and yet another situation uncounted or not considered within the BLM’s horse count criteria, but from bone piles we have found, many occurrences do exist of such . . .

Which brings us to a “Natural Occurrence” of birth moderation within a “Natural Environmental Setting” and healthy Ecological System – moderation and circumstances leading up to this moderation the key-element here, and sound Ecological Health present . . . BLM Biologists simply have no idea this situation even exists, as their single system priority of cattle management shows us.

And yet, here we are watching the Family Bands being disrupted by the use of a genetically altered product, a registered Pesticide (i.e. EPA Registered Pesticide – By Qualified Science), and trademarked and produced by people that state they “care about wild horses.”

And yet the other consequence, the fact that they distract with one set of explanation, as they state, “. . . saving the wild horses by darting them,” although the statistics, raw numbers, do not show this what so ever – So are we to conclude that in “Reality” horse advocates are taking advantage of $$$$ obtaining an income, and ultimately kill wild horses, under yet another falsified circumstance of saving them?  Is this their true objective?  And the next question, do these horse advocates know, or are they simply of low-IQ, and simply do not know they have been manipulated = ignorance.  There are many more questions, perhaps answered, perhaps not, but many more questions exist, for sure.

Many of us say, clearly and without bias, the actions and reactions of this genetically altered situation speaks much louder than someone’s unscientific, or even special-interest motivated $$$$ scientific explanations (mostly a brochure type style of sales, cloaked with make-believe scientific references that when perused are invalid at best).  It does not take a biology degree to see this in the field, what so ever; but, after seeing so much of these occasions on the range, we can question these supposed people with science degrees or range management degrees and what, exactly, is their motivations = $$$$. . . Obviously, severe conflict of interests exists, or within many cases, simply dominate the entire situation.


There is no way to resolve this situation of a “Mares Rejection” of their foal’s.  What we have found in the field is an increase of foal-death, not less, and the usual 42% to 50% death rate has, we believe, increased to approximately 62% to 70% — which the BLM would not admit, as there exists already more than enough controversy within their wild horse counts right now.

This corrupt government agency continues to lie, create misinformation in the form of socioeconomic s’, and actually is destroying our Public Lands as well as much of our wildlife – the BLM is a government agency that needs to be shut-down, and all contractors, those who also receive subsidies, or independent Grant seekers, need to be shut-off from taxpayer money until the problems, i.e. corruption, on our Public Lands can be resolved.


Posted by on October 30, 2018 in Uncategorized


Wild Horses and Their History: Time to Correct Things

“An estimated 1 to 10 percent of all species that ever lived have left fossils, and an estimated 1 to 10 percent of those will ever be found. . . Horses are the only “complete-Link” we have that has a complete fossil record to their history.”

Many of us today promote the educational values of reading. Many folks read, but what is the quality of their reading. I bring this up, because we discover the quality of those that read, today, is very low and things are missed, quite often, that become significant later.

The quality of research remains similar, and the small innuendos between contrivance, confusion, and controversy become issues of concern. Just as often the mental-filtration of information or our perceptions, become self-contrived, and we accept some things, but more often than not those other things we do not accept, or unconsciously pass-by as inconsequential – The problem starts here, as those “things” we neglected to understand, were indeed significant within explanation.

Saying this, we now move to the history of the “horse” which coincides with several other mammals (especially the Pygmy Mammoth), which, we now conclude, the Pleistocene Era was not as damaging to wildlife or humans, as first thought or even conjectured; which, often becomes what we reference as a “tainted-history” situation. The fact is DNA and telemetry within science shows this quite evident, and developed through several theories — locating grazers, for example the Pygmy Mammoth and “Horse” bones at archeological digs, showing they survived through the Pleistocene and onward into several “Eras” of human-habitation in areas the dig-sites located when, indeed, both assumed extinct – on the west coast, and the Pacific Northwest, and in Alaska as well),

This is not quite malicious-science (driven by personal agendas, special interests, or political concerns) or of a malicious nature, but “snobbery” (ie. A significant explanation and something no historian want to reference at times) as well as the issues of “process” or what we can accept as a paradigm or idea, especially within financial realms of budgets for digs, between the financing and logistics of such an expedition, it’s simply not easy undertaking. It is when so many questions develop, from the overlooked, or often precisely ignored issues come into the light, that suddenly the old-paradigms of fact become “castles made of sand that wash out into the sea” so to speak. Suddenly, budgets obtained and dig-sites once again “unearth” information previously overlooked. What we must not overlook either, is the fact of those bones which appear insignificant, are tossed aside.

Are all archeological discoveries found through sound science and financing of a dig site? We can go to the Pygmy Mammoth site of Channel Islands National Park, California, where the Archeology crew were having lunch on the island, where one of the crew sitting on the head of a Pygmy Mammoth (unknowingly since such a small portion uncovered), and was not discovered until days later, and upon second thoughts during another lunch at the same site – financing through the National Park Service easily accomplished when they realized the reality. Not so with many other types of digs.

Keep in mind that the key-piece to non-survivability of the “horse” is predicated upon “. . . not such good evidence. . .” as much as upon conjecture, opinions, or a convoluted-theory or non-availability of bones – but this is not a truism either, currently (it is simply acceptable to accept this theory, and to remain out of controversy, then actually approach it, as the actual snobbish and conservative aspects of this community is quite extraordinary, indeed).

This is where the questions start, and with the unique things we find through Oceanic-telemetry, as well as videos, of small areas of a vast oceanic-bottom in the Bering Sea (the area of the Bering’s Land Bridge) and “Beringia” (which can also be an entire series of articles, quite an interesting place, and developments dramatic to the extreme) –

The fact is when we can ultimately get down to those meadows, perhaps villages and other items of interest to our history, Paleontologist’s surmise that  changes, and some surmise even extreme changes perhaps, in the matters of our factual life-history may take place. This is not something new, but old news, indeed, and that “. . . horses instead went westward from the Americas, where their respective species had developed.”

Now the questions start to multiply, but wait, there is much more. Yes, a minute detail often overlooked by many, but a reality just the same (and the many dig-sites where horse bones are showing up, surprisingly many, in the Pacific Northwest, for example, of many more – and I will cover them in Part II and Part III of this series).

Dig-Sites and More Questions

“The University of Colorado study was the first to identify protein residue from extinct camels on North American stone tools and only the second to identify horse protein residue on a Clovis-age tool. A third tool tested positive for sheep and a fourth for bear.

All 83 artifacts were shipped to anthropology professor Robert Yohe, of the Laboratory of Archaeological Science at California State, Bakersfield, for the protein residue tests.

“I was somewhat surprised to find mammal protein residues on these tools, in part because we initially suspected that the cache might be ritualistic rather than utilitarian,” Yohe said.

“There are so few Clovis-age tool caches that have been discovered that we really don’t know very much about them.”

Anthropology professor Douglas Bamforth, who led the study, said the discovery of horse and camel protein on the tools was the clincher for him that the tools were of Clovis origin.

“We haven’t had camels or horses around here since the late Pleistocene.”

Significant here, to keep in mind, is the fact or assumption, that Clovis would be the first to use tools – oddly, we automatically assume, as well, it was for ritualistic situations, rather than the situation of just cutting up the food-supply, as we all know we are now much more civilized than human’s during the stone-age (sarcasm here), which would be the subject matter of an entirely different article.

But it is not just the Clovis situation we find troubling here, rather in-addition to, and the fact that, and often overlooked, the situation of horse-meat being available, would mean horses existed, beyond a doubt. As well, the last statement, “We haven’t had camels or horses around here since the Pleistocene.”

Now we can start to confirm things, or the difference between a passive statement of compliance – or the fact they would even “date” another bone-find with something so contrived or opinionated as horses being non-existence (theory/conjecture only – and troubling to many others as well, not just myself) within current dig-sites, and the puzzle, whether or not this community wants to admit it or not, is starting to fit together – we are looking at a situation, as pointed out here, that the Clovis people and their tools have not been dug-up very often at all, and the fact admitted, “. . . we don’t really know very much about them.”

“At the time, the prevailing theory was that the Clovis were the earliest human inhabitants of the Americas, with sites across North and Central America containing their iconic spearheads. As early as the 16th century, Europeans proposed that a land bridge between Asia and North America might have provided the route for early human migration; by the 1940s scientists were actively looking for and finding evidence for the bridge’s existence. And in the 1930s, spear points discovered near Clovis, New Mexico, were also discovered to match the artifacts found in Beringia . . .” (A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, et al, robotic submarines) “. . . convincing people that the Clovis came first, approximately 13,000 years ago.”

But when Cinq-Mars brought the fragments found at the Bluefish Caves back to the laboratory, he came to an incredible conclusion: humans had actually occupied North America as early as 24,000 years ago.

Naturally, the scientific community was skeptical. Other archaeologists raised a number of doubts about the bone samples. Anything in the environment can leave marks on artifacts: freeze-thaw cycle can snap bones, wolves (author’s note: wolves considered extinct over many centuries, as bone finds very uncommon, but used often when debating the authenticity of bones – yes, hypocrisy and contrivance alive and well at times) and other carnivores chew on them, rocks fall on them from the ceiling of the cave. And it just didn’t fit into the Clovis hypothesis.”

“For at least 70 years, everybody was stuck on ‘Clovis first,’” said anthropologist Dennis Stanford with the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. “Anybody that came up with another kind of site was shouted down or disproved.”

The discord surrounding Cinq-Mars’ discovery resulted in a portion of the collection never being thoroughly analyzed, and researchers eventually lost interest. But now, 40 years after Cinq-Mars’ initial discovery, it seems the archaeologist has been vindicated.”

“. . . The earliest bone to show distinct human-made marks—a horse jaw, sawed by a stone tool that indicates the hunter was attempting to remove the tongue—dates to 24,800 years ago.

The horse mandible was the most exciting find for Bourgeon. It bears multiple straight cuts, very similar to those made by stone tools and distinct in shape from marks made by carnivore teeth and natural abrasion. Additionally, the cuts match the patterns that would be created from butchering the horse. Altogether, Bourgeon says, the marks on the bone fulfill multiple criteria that would classify them as having a cultural origin, whereas it would be hard to explain their existence by natural processes.

“It was fairly exhausting,” said Bourgeon of their investigation in an interview conducted in French. “But I was really passionate about the project. When you see those traces of cuts on the bones, and know that horse is believed to have disappeared 14,000 years ago (note: Current finds at dig-sites in the Pacific Northwest, find horse bones dating to 2,000 to 12,000 years ago as well, which means horses actually proven to be alive and well within a time of their assumed extinction. . .), that means we can guess humans were here before. It was a huge discovery.

Bourgeon and Burke’s research provides new evidence for a more recent hypothesis that aims at overturning the old ‘Clovis first’ assumption (note: which today it has overturned the Clovis-First theories, as their digs continue in the Yukon). Known as the Beringia standstill hypothesis, it states that there was a pause in human migration from Asia to North America between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago due to the frigid climate. The standstill coincides with the last glacial maximum (about 26,000 years ago to 19,000 years ago), the most recent period in Earth’s history when the ice sheets were at their furthest southward extension (think glaciers down to New York City).

If the evidence bears out, it would also mean that humans came to North America a whole lot earlier than previously believed: 10,000 years earlier. Humans (and horses – i.e. project here they come from the America’s and not from Siberia to . . .) were living in the Siberian Arctic prior to the last glacial maximum, when the climate was milder and hunting options were abundant. Archaeologists have found evidence of human habitation in western Beringia (the landmass now beneath the Bering Strait) from 32,000 years ago, near the Yana River. But as the climate grew colder, humans would have been forced to migrate in search of food and shelter.”


When we overlook the minute details, the statements made by people passively, which suddenly become relevant – is one of life’s wonders, for sure. That lunch on the Channel Islands that developed into a question days later (I was there watching as it played out, as a matter of fact), that become a very significant find on the West Coast – and spurred financing toward many other Pygmy Mammoth and horse bone finds as well. What has been found, is the fact horse-bones have a high-potential of discovery, and indeed more Mammoth bones at the same sites, as well as other ancient bones — or other grazers that also survived the Pleistocene ERA and throughout history — oddly, many thought to be extinct, and similar time-scales as the Horse, or Pygmy Mammoth . . .

Achievement, many times, marked by questions. How do these questions derive? Where do they come from? In many cases they come from the person, standing watching a situation, or experiencing a situation, and then wondering why? What? Where? When? And the ultimate How Come this was never discussed, or why was that circumstance not financed, or all this time I thought, or was told . . .

My key-point here is exact – and that is the circumstance that there is a lot more to horse history than what we know now, or should I say acknowledge? We are a society of acceptable-opinion only, and fail to do research on how or why opinions become so narrow, judgmental, process-like or even hypocritical.

The actual history of the horse falls directly into dark, vast abyss that often does not reflect the light of day, and just as often, many afraid to venture forth and find out that truth – that circumstance that contradicts the very history of what we learned about, and also learned to never question it.  Now we are questioning it, because things are not fitting well within the perspective, properly.

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Posted by on August 5, 2018 in Uncategorized


Part II — Rewilding America’s Wild Horses

“A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.”  — Aldo Leopold

This secret thing that we all suppose is around somewhere or another . . . there is no secret. We are connecting the old and established, the well-researched, the obvious resolution, the climax, the ultimate instrument, the experienced occasion, the robustly gathered data, the interpretive realm of taking data and presenting it in our common English language, combined with the great science that makes headlines.

We wind this up into a ball of knowledge, and spread it out before the public at large, this thing, we call “Rewilding.”  It has got to do with years of working on conservation problems having to do with resource extraction, ungulates, and predators, and the land being connected to all, as one functioning organism.  This is Leopold at its best, but we have gone through that lands ethic, through the good times, the misunderstood times, and now the confusion over not just Leopold’s Lands Ethic, but the term conservation itself – hunters and trappers have an opinion based on no evidence at all, and attempt to change the terminology and definition of “conservation” – perhaps why the wildlife system of today remains broken and by a process that confuses conservationism with the lust of the kill, or sport of it all and the outright ignorance that goes with it.

What true conservationists realize is the fact that yes, we have made mistakes in the past, but showed us the value of what we were doing. This is a positive-and-negative Universe of ours and living within it and figuring out how to live among all this diversity of species, we experience the upside and the downside, learning from both.  This is what experience is meant to be.

Often, we were on the right track but regulated from misinformation and misunderstood how exactly evidence works within the bounds of data-interpretations, that is, until wildlife started to disappear, and disappear it did.  We can all admit reflection upon a lot of mistakes, but the overwhelming significance that developed into an awareness that every living thing plays a role and has ecological value – again, Leopold’s reasoning as well, becomes a very real circumstance.

The truth is resource management, even today, needs to shift from the focus on economics and extraction (economic ecology) to a more holistic view of a “biotic-community” or what the reality of it is, the view of maintaining and restoring all species, including large predators, the horse, the wolf…

Rewilding and Land Health

As we look at those today, in positions of responsibility attempting to take-away our Endangered Species Act, I cannot help but reflect upon its reasoning.  I experienced first hand the Spotted Owl venture, and agreed with-it, after I seen the tragedy of what Washington and Oregon State loggers were doing to our timberland’s and forestry. Where I used to drive along in comfort, up to Mt. St. Helens constantly and see heavy timber stands, suddenly become lunar-type bald hillsides and mountain tops. The mountain spirits spoke, loud and clear, when Mt. St Helens erupted, stating ENOUGH LOGGING! ENOUGH HUMAN INTERFERENCE!

At the same time research people found, for example, the value of downed trees, retention of standing dead trees, and of course the maintenance of Owl Habitats, which become an enlightening situation, but not just due to the obvious, but we become enlightened to the prominent growth of ignorance, and just how ignorant people could become over the Spotted Owl issues. This seemed to originate with a couple of very uneducated and ignorant talk-show hosts, that derived a large demographic from their ignorant and very biased views. Indeed, it showed us all the strength of stupidity, the isolated human-species, was something to pay attention to and not just shrug off as irrelevant.

Most of the variation in how the term ‘rewilding’ is used depends on the degree of human intervention in improving the functions and services provided by ecosystems that are “rewilded.” Rewilding strategies range from emulating the past by direct and intense human intervention, called “Pleistocene Rewilding” to attempting to foster the future co-existence of natural and anthropological systems with minimum human intervention, dubbed “Passive Rewilding.”

Advocates of Pleistocene rewilding propose introducing functionally equivalent extant species as substitutes for extinct taxa. Translocation rewilding shares the roots of Pleistocene Rewilding but focuses mainly on re-introducing species that occurred more recently than the Pleistocene.

At the other extreme of the human intervention gradient is Passive Rewilding, which requires little human intervention in order to allow ecological succession to reach a sustainable state within a landscape matrix of cities, infrastructure and croplands by exploiting opportunities provided by long-term socioeconomic trends, such as the release of lands for wilderness owing to rural abandonment.

Rewilding differs from simple reintroduction in that it is mostly concerned with reintroducing species that have a high potential to exert an influence across several trophic levels, under the assumption that such species will have disproportionally large and beneficial effects on communities and ecosystems. Generally speaking, the idea is to introduce a top predator (such as wolves) or a dominant herbivore (such as bison, or the wild horse, that both once roamed the Great Plains of the US or similar landscapes all across the America’s) and that these reintroduction’s will restore key ecological processes via top-down control (control of populations on a lower trophic level by activities at a higher trophic level, e.g. when predators control a prey population), return an ecosystem to a previous state or re-initiate key ecosystem functions.

“You’re only given one little spark of madness. Don’t ever lose that, no don’t. Because that’s what keeps you alive.”  – Robin Williams

The “nay-sayers” of trophic cascade science state Economic Ecology above all else and find there may not be a controlled-financial aspect within this structure. Myself and others find that it is unneeded, and always has been. But this brings up another situation, those against Ecological Habitat Empowerment, and that is the element of “Change”.  And this alone scares the hell out of many people, many administrators of wildlife, as they sit within their broken system of wildlife management, their sadly antiquated belief system with their attempts to manipulate good science by financial profit margins, which does not work at all – as the ideology of both are totally different, totally inadequate to support the other.

Trophic Cascade Science

This biodiversity tool creates change for those destroyed habitats’ where a single-species priority, such as cattle was the norm, and everything else was killed-off to better promote the graze for the cattle. What trophic cascade effect develops is an ecological habitat strength, ecosystem resilience and an established persistence over time.

Can we work wild horses within this paradigm?  Absolutely. The fact is that to maintain diversity within any ecosystem enhances their ability to recover naturally, which also means moderation in all species birth rates (E.O. Wilson explains this thoroughly and often to initiate communication between those administrating people, ironically in charge of wildlife management, and those that strive toward ecological health as a priority through better management paradigms) do develop within a natural circumstance. When all is said and done, the ability for an ecological habitat to recover naturally after a disturbance is governed by the diversity upheld within the habitat itself. This provides resources for truthful multi-use of Pubic and Federal Lands situations, and not just a statement that is meant to merely cover-up corruption, as the Bureau of Land Management and the Department of the Interior currently use these terms commercially, rather than to actually manage our Lands, our environment, within a context of a positive nature.

What has been lost is the fact we, as taxpayers, pay for the separation of our Public and Federal Lands to keep them non-commercialized, as our cities and townships commercialized enough. The situation of “Raw-Material” commercialization has over-flowed into what we, as American’s felt was our lands, our areas of remoteness to enjoy as American’s, and lands we had fought for and were proud of sustaining – separate from the drudgery of the common commercialized world – and to actually step in cow-shit while camping, was and remains unacceptable!

Make no doubt there are challenges that come with implementation of “rewilding” within the scope of predator-prey relationships and in applying the trophic cascade science to support ecosystem management. The concepts of minimal viable population (unique upon each habitat due to variable natural circumstances that exist) and ecological effectiveness paramount.

Viability refers to the likelihood of a species to persist for some period of time. Effectiveness refers to the impact of the species’ presence, abundance, and distribution in achieving ecosystem conditions. Here is where we have the problems with both the BLM and State Wildlife Management programs, and their single-species perceptions based on minimal viable population (MVP) sizes.

Their concept is not compatible with the natural necessity of progression in our wilds (quite obvious due to the wildlife kill-off percentages (very real and well documented through science and data recovery), and a mere 40% approximately, availability of our nations wildlife left on this planet) nor to the trophic cascade approach of ecological system process and management – and their concepts very different from an ecologically effective population, which does represent an ecosystem perspective.

This answers the question, also, as to why State and Federal agencies are intimidated by Wild Horses, because they really do not fit in with any of their single-species paradigms (which their paradigms indeed destroy federal and state lands, well proven with data/evidence) and the simple presence of the Wild Horses, and wolves ironically, show this quite well. Yes, some how or another “Fools” have been placed in charge of making decisions for our State and Federal Lands, that is quite obvious today, and out in the wilderness areas we see it daily.

For example, if we had fifteen pairs of breeding wolves in Oregon and within their management plans – or ESA’s (and ignored the ignorance of welfare ranchers and wolf-haters alike and who have no idea what conservation is or is not), it may be a viable population, yes, but it may not necessarily be an ecological effective number of wolves, defined as one capable of triggering a trophic cascade.

Science and Its Roll

What we can all agree upon, is the shift toward ecologically-effective population perspectives, and acknowledge top carnivores’ role in structing ecosystems. This is essential, because it incorporates our current knowledge of just how keystone predators can be essential to their environment.

For a quick example, just the presence of wolves in an area, and browsers such as deer and Elk keep moving, rather than stay within an area and deplete the vegetation, and when wolves not present only move-on when no browse left and the areas compromised – which horses do not do, as they consistently roam, but have been blamed for area depletion. Just a note here: I have found those who make these statements, obviously and when they mention the areas I have been in, I see little to no horse hoof prints, and a lot of deer, Elk, and Cattle tracks and scat (yes, I recommend all writers of ecology and the wild horses come out to the range and see much more information than a computer can give you).

This strategy can be essential, as it improves the environment. These keystone predation effects increase diversity, and this is what we are after – Ecosystem resilience because of keystone effects. In an effective ecology ideology, for example in an aspen community, an ecological effective wolf population creates a phase-shift from an intensely browsed forest understory to one characterized by sapling growth above browse height. “Ecological effective densities are relative because ecosystems are complex and vary across time and space.” Various sampling methods can be used to measure this situation, so data is essential as well, and other methods of data gather, of the diversity within a habitat, of significance.

We do not hide from the truth but use the truth effectively to enhance our wildlife and all around natural habitats for best function. Excuses are a non-viable creating function, and not used within our nature’s process – as being non-useful entirely. Similar to fine tuning a car, smoothness and synchronizing all portions of the car demanding, but doable and when running properly, is something of elegance, speed, and durability over time. If something is not running right, then an excuse made, then one can be sitting alongside the road in a remote desert area, with no phone, and . . .


The more we discuss “Rewilding” and the tools, such as Trophical Cascade Paradigms’ the more useful information we come across, to enhance our Ecological Systems, true enough; but to also enhance our Wild Horse viability, as I believe we owe it to these amazing icons of American History.

But the Wild Horses also come from prehistoric times, and Paleontology is showing us their history complete, especially in the United States. Buffoons are the only people that differ to the history of the horse to be incomplete, but then, they are also the one’s who remain destroying not only our culture but our Environment as well.

The reasoning for “Rewilding” and its necessity for the Wild Horses will continue, as this is a very important realm to explore, to save our Wild Horses from the prevalent ignorance within their management on Public and Federal Lands that exists today. Abuse and slaughter of our horses very prevalent today, as well, and history will certainly show our future generations just how bad people can get and make excuses for themselves while abusing and slaughtering such a beautiful piece of our history, and its dynamic-stature as a Horse, itself.

This is the end of Part II and Part III – will delve into the trophic cascade paradigms, as well as further our exploration into Rewilding the Wild Horses. This is a complex subject, and breaking it down for understanding is essential, in order to have any type of dialogue with our government legislators or those who want resolution for our Wild Horses and placing them back onto OUR Public and Federal Lands.


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Wild Horses and Rewilding Them; Enough corrupt government infringement

“One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds.  Much of the damage inflicted on land is quite invisible to the layman.  An Ecologist must either harden his shell and make believe that the consequences of science are none of his business, or he must be the doctor that sees the marks of death in a community that believes itself well and does not want to be told otherwise.” – Aldo Leopold

Welcome to the world of Wild Horses mis-managed by our government, entirely, of the Apex-Predator kill off for sport and reasoning based on pure ignorance, and natural landscapes considered unuseful unless making money for someone – somehow (oh yes, never forget the livestock mentality – which must make money or else it is of no use — of total ignorance as to what horses or other wildlife is and is not) and to the world of instability, in both the landscapes we inhabit and the economic uncertainty and climate variability.

But many, including myself, see hope out of all this uncertainty – if we can only be truthful about what is ongoing, certainly right there and in front of us all.  Like reworking a statue, sculpting with love and pure common-sense reasoning, and taking something that has been destroyed but not beyond repair, and ultimately making it better than it had ever been before.  This is what quality people do when saving our wildlife from terrible, abusive people and their inhumane ways of controlling them, as if abuse is a sacrificial option and is okay to do . . . well, it is not at all!

When we discuss “Rewilding” of America’s Wild Horses, we are now discussing yet another option, of many others, rather than use Pesticide PZP or other destructive breed controls that destroy the horse’s physical and mental process (as many science papers state clearly), as well as destructive within our natural environment.  These supposed positive ideologies are in reality, not positive at all, but truthfully darting Our American Icons, the Wild Horses’ to extinction.

A “Rewilding” Ideology (or an option of many), can connect Ecological Habitats via Federal Lands, State Lands, Public Lands, and Private Lands together.  This situation then becomes one of shared-benefits that can and would protect ecological property values for all involved.  Yes, enhancing Ecological Habitats, which in turn enhances the over-all Environmental Landscape, which in the evolution of this type of resolution becomes also profitable, and hardly at any cost to maintain, if at all.

Currently we use Public and Federal Lands for forestry (the cattle portion very corrupt) oil drilling, mining (and lose money yearly for taxpayers in the billions of dollars from either no payments or mismanaged regulatory situations from the very corrupt Bureau of Land Management), and especially cattle grazing – which is a mere 4% of ranchers in the United States (i.e. welfare ranchers), they are a provider of 2.9% of their beef product to the commercial markets, and their sales receipts are less than 1%, and with a 34% throw-away margin (commercial Beef Overall in America USDA Beef Assimilated Stats) we discover no need for our Public Lands to impose upon the taxpayer’s (i.e. $ Billions of dollars yearly for welfare rancher subsidies) any longer, nor the necessity, as truthfully, the taxpayers obtain no benefits, and never have, from BLM’s grazing permit programs, which remain corrupt in total, at almost every phase of these subsidy programs.

When we begin to consider the Wild Horses, true enough, the limitations exist, but those same values that limit the process, also enhance the ecological process. We endeavor to enhance the overall environment, by indeed implementing a process that enhances many ecological habitats. Profoundly, we can establish a system, where diversity within those habitats do exist within wildlife, and use the Trophic Cascade Principles as a working-device to create separate habitats in accord with each ecological island.  I am speaking here of Biodiversity and the web of life, more on a continental scale, than a simplified local scale – whereas a local scale of a healthy ecological enhancement process does benefit our overall Environment.

The Lakota Indians have a powerful prayer, “Mitakuye Oyasin,” which means “All My relations” or “We Are All Related.”

What is encompassed within this strategy is taking advantage of the values we have found in keystone predators in maintaining the diversity of life via trophic cascades, is the importance of conservation networks that emphasize core habitat areas as well as corridors, and our dependence on the earth’s services in the form of ecosystem integrity and resilience.  We find the greatest impediment being the facts of Rewilding is an unwillingness to imagine it as a reality.  But then, we have the Yellowstone National Park and the wolves as an excellent example of “Rewilding”, and yet many want it discontinued, despite the positive nature of that program.  This shows us just how broken our Wildlife Management System and government agencies such as the Bureau of Land Management as well as the Department of the Interior, and their corruption, are today.

Ecosystem Management

An effective approach to conservation, the real definition and not the sudo-attempt at conservation through single-species priorities and the hell with the rest of wildlife and vegetation that does not make money that we see today; rather, establishing natural habitats managed toward diversity of wildlife, uphold diversity of acceptable regional vegetation, enhancement of water resources, and doing this responsibly and without hindrance from offset regulatory-systems that simply do not work at all.  Then we allow the ecological habitat to mange itself, which also enhances the entire Ecological Habitat through moderation and a natural progression of resources.

“Rewilding” essentially addresses our current and future needs of this before-mentioned network of wildlife reserves, both public and private.  This also provides our tools for Ecosystem Management to maintain biodiversity and ecosystems within a broader variety of landscapes, and significant here, a larger base for those lands dominated by multiple-uses.  A natural moderation of wildlife population, and of concern here, would be the wild horses and of benefit to all of the diverse wildlife as well as the vegetation and watering resources.  Considering here the usefulness of the wild horse and its grazing of invasive vegetation, which restores fundamental indigenous vegetation while reducing any aspects of wildfire happenings.  Interesting how a proven circumstance can work, when allowed, when compared with human-interference and human-ignorance not allowing these options to develop.  And then, as happens today with both wildlife management and lands management situations, the lies start pouring into the equation, and everything becomes disrupted, then destroyed.

A Reality — Today’s Biodiversity

Today is challenging for biodiversity, and as with anything of decency, a fistful of truth and good, often must be learned.  Time is now of the essence, and rather than stand and defend itself among those who lie, cheat, and swindle, in order to make money, and who do not improve the plight of wildlife and environments alike, we must aggressively start approaching resolutions, and meet the negative and challenging situations straight-on.

Human-caused changes in the ecosystem will continue, as will global warming and will be a direct attritional negative value, of human indulgence upon itself.  Fencing areas in because one may have a Grazing Permit, as with our Public Lands and Welfare Ranching, is symbolic of taking something innocent and non-invasive, and quite frankly destroying it for greed and knowledgably favoring corruption at the same time.  This is Economic Ecology at its worst, and favoring a single-invasive-species, such as cattle, defies science in total, and has for many decades and even centuries’ over time.

The fact is our own power, our personal power is limited.  Our power comes from many people speaking up and standing strong and against those that would keep perpetuating circumstances that will ultimately destroy our ecological habitats, our environmental Landscapes, and finally our human-species, and all due to ignorance.

Human activities have caused eutrophication of lakes, acid rain pollution, erosion due to negative land use and poor management of lands and poorly constructed roads, introduction of exotic species such as cattle and wreaks havoc with lands not receptive to cattle (i.e. an invasive species) what so ever, and habitat fragmentation or the separation of healthy ecological habitats by fencing them off and placing invasive and exotic species onto fenced in locations –

We need to identify what holds a healthy ecosystem together.  We have very fine examples, although, and attention must be paid to those circumstances that actually developed into a positive lands value.  What was the interactions between the top carnivores, for example, their strengths and direction they took, their niche and how it created a positive value as a top-down keystone predator within the trophical cascade ideology (proven with sound data and good science time and again)?  Then we take it even further, and consider what are the unique elements of each island-habitat, and how are these components of a system directly sensitive to change, and the breaking points beyond which restoration may not be possible.

Human needs also need to be placed into this equation, within a common-sense aspect.  All of the best intentions, I believe, will simply not work if we do not place the human factor into them.  If you have not already guessed, it is simply wise to integrate humans into the equation with wildlife, as achieving a sustainability for biodiversity and whole ecosystems – and for humans and wildlife and for the habitat they require.

The extension of this article, is to explain the mapping operation of obtaining our goals.  Make no doubt it is a bumpy road, as always conservation and resource management always has been, and always will be.

I liked the explanation a friend stated the other day, “Our road, John, is fraught with bumpy roads, unexpected curves, and challenges beyond imagination.  But you and I are the utility vehicles, and we were meant to do this, and those challenges although daunting as they are and will be, but always doable for us. Keep that in mind.”