When I’m up in the mountains, collecting data in the field, first thing I look at when I realize I am within a healthy ecosystem, is its stability. I look for the things that may also destabilize the system, that is, once I understand how each is functioning together. How the vegetation in the terrestrial environment and landscape is functioning alongside wildlife and how the wildlife, the browsers, the small critters, the insects, the keystone predators, associate with the marine environment, and if there is a creek, or a stream, I want to find out and know how all of this is affecting the overall ecosystem, or process within that habitat.
I also know from wildfires, hurricane or natural disturbances, melted glacier pack, or even floods, that the recolonization by pioneer species becomes inevitable at times. We can look at the terrestrial perspective, and discuss new growth timber that becomes old-growth, and how it significantly affected each habitat within its unique capacity to develop a positive and healthy habitat process and eventual system, that indeed created a stability within the environment. Nature thrives very well on consistency as well as routine – the four seasons for example, human’s uncomfortable, but for growth and health; indeed, Nature thrives on the seasons being consistent, an integration takes place because of the constant power of each season.
Right now, we can gain a new perspective about Wild Horses being, some would say, rewilded; but, I refrain from that phrase. just as a new tree turns into old-growth and within a thriving and healthy habitat and over the years of consistency, in this case, develops into a positive system. . . I am not discussing the re-establishment nor a re-acquaintance by the Wild Horses and actually placing them back into their home environments; neither am I establishing a pioneer species within these environments where the Wild Horses come from.
The overwhelming fact of this is beyond debate, the Wild Horses were taken illegally by government agencies that do not understand habitat-process, stability of land mass and wildlife, nor do they understand the tools that are needed for habitats to become of value, that can and do (e.g. when managed properly) enhance our Natural Resources (i.e. enhancing our food supplements within a healthy environment), nor does government agencies have the ability to understand good science as far as we can see through their current actions. Bigotry and bias are not good decision-making backgrounds, as we see daily in government, and total ignorance even worse in the decision-making process. . . as we see on our Public and Forestry lands of today overwhelmed with bad decision making results —
The question soon centers around the term natural disturbance, how and what may dramatically change the landscape. But should we simply pay attention to the landscape, when compared to understanding the entire scope of what lay underneath the landscape, soil quality throughout the landscape, and clean water in streams, or other natural occurrences, and what about the natural resources and the element of growth and quality of the Natural Resources for Our Nation’s food chain supplements of grains, oats, and other important grasses, the element of substance, the element of pollution or no pollution, the element of human intervention and interference compared to scientific-based human intervention and positive habitat management.
Now we step into the realm of Primary Succession, or the change in an environment when it is colonized, or re-colonized, or when a disturbance wipes out a healthy ecosystem that was previously present in the environment. . . Government intervention from their special interests or political agendas remain basically extraordinary disturbance-occurrence and to include cattle, sheep, mining, oil, illegal or very questionable fencing, as well as many other incompetent management practices brought about by corrupt government intervention.
The truth is, government employees could care less because it’s not their money paying for it all, it’s the taxpayers’ that pay for all of it – all of this ongoing and current nonsense upon our public lands, and the corrupt management paradigms that exist, or what some refer to as mismanagement.
In the process of Primary Succession, the ecosystem process builds or rebuilds itself from the ground up. But within either building process the establishment of “pioneer species” takes place. For example, we reestablish wild horses into an area that was designated as a Wild Horse area, and in accordance with the Wild Horse and Burro act of 1971. We can truthfully point out that the cattle, sheep, mining, oil industries destroy the land to such a point it is non-useful. In this case we can now call the Wild Horses a “pioneer species” – which would establish themselves back into or onto their land and environmental complex.
I state “pioneer species”, as what we are trying to accomplish is a healthy environment complex, and the system to do so is, starting over again. Now you see why I refrain from speaking about the term to re-wild a species, as we are not doing so within that term, but we are establishing a “pioneer species” and upon lands that have been Desertified, or in another words shown to be destroyed to such a point the land is Non-Useful any longer – which, under this paradigm the Wild Horses reestablished first, followed by other plants, bacteria and fungus growth, insects, and finally more animals.
This is where moderation of populations becomes grounded and within the first year or two, both wildlife and terrestrial, as some will thrive and some will not do so whatsoever. The rebuilding phase of this type of environment, and the complex structure that is within it, of all living organisms, and the Yin and Yang of the universal quality, some will make it some will not, but indeed, eventually a stable ecological habitat and a positive and thorough process or basis of building the foundation, only then does the ecological process become enhanced positively, especially toward positive growth and moderations of population dynamics within all species of both vegetation and wildlife.
What I have found over the years within my research, reference materials, and being in the field, is that the time from primary succession to a stable and thorough ecological process can take decades. But, and this is extraordinary, is the fact that population moderation happens within the first year or two of the reestablished ecological habitat, and within the process that develops within a natural and constant paradigm based on sound science, common sense, and a respect for not only nature and its natural process, but for the wildlife and its diversity and growth, as well as within the terrestrial environment that grows within the habitat.
Now I can discuss “Secondary Succession”, which occurs when an ecological habitat has been damaged and is being repopulated. Here we can once again use the way the current government agencies go about managing our public lands, and refrain from such bad and irrelevant management principle’s, and also use a Stand of 180 trees in the forest. There process, which lacks good science, is to log off and obtain profit from the 180 trees that are in a stand covering 110 acres. We then find they will use bulldozers with very heavy chains, and after the trees have been logged off, to basically rip apart and tear apart the entire environmental complex. Grass will be allowed to grow, if at all, and taxpayers will pay for the seeds very definitely, as well as all this other maniacal and perverted type of land management based on no science whatsoever, and after a year or two or five, cattle will be moved in and at a cut-rate cost to the welfare rancher, which the taxpayers will cover, and obtain nothing back except higher taxes.
Yes, there is a reason the grazing permit program and the welfare ranching community have received $531.6 billion in subsidies over the past few years, once you start understanding, observing, and seeing what the result of their management, corrupt within all means and ways, and done with no common sense what so ever.
But rather a bias form of ignorance, which says it is okay to choose cattle over thousands upon thousands of acres of wilderness area, which could have provided us much needed diversity of continued Natural Resources over many years (our Natural Grass Lands Resource domestically, is down to 16% availability to our Food Chain Supplement, for example, and going further downward, with no Resource upswing in sight, due to poor management of our public lands), rather than the destruction from the cattle, which obligates our Public Lands for a short time period of graze, then followed by destruction, and followed again by years of non-use due to the destructive nature, desertification continues, of cattle, sheep, mining, and the oil industries awkward and unregulated use of our Public Lands.
Are we using our Public Lands beneficially, and with a positive value toward Taxpayer money, value-based, and what will the taxpayer’s get out of it, the entire situation, and the costly incompetent management? ABSOLUTELY NOTHING! PERHAPS HIGHER TAXES, IS ABOUT ALL.
In a functioning ecosystem, the process of “Secondary Succession” never really ends. Now we can refer to recolonization, which begins moderately, with the insect world, the keystone predators, the adversarial situations that are formed within predator-prey relationships all the way from bacteria and fungus, up to and including the bear, cougar, wolves, the marine environment of fisheries, et al. Then we get to the specialty wildlife, specialty insects, predators large and small.
What I have seen in different environmental complex situations, a good example is around Mount Saint Helens, wherein an overly amount of spiders and their drifting spiderwebs developed to begin the “pioneer species” after the eruption, and possibly due to lack of prey, many of the diversity of spiders left, or disappeared.
What develops is a situation, regardless of which wildlife large or small, one species replaces another over months or seasons. But what is also consistent is the fact that the number of species that remain constant, have not only found their predator-prey relationship that enhances their life-span and quality of life, whether it be grass or whether it be fungus or whether it be whatever, that eventually within the year their population will moderate, as good well research science as well as data collection and through observations, show us quite well. The competition for food, water, and shelter becomes less, as growth remains predicated upon size of habitat, how fast the population moderates, among other substantial habitat community paradigms.
This is what good science shows us. This is what the government agencies in charge of our lands does not seem to know, nor do they acknowledge the existence of such information. And this is troubling.
Michael E. Soulè and John Terborgh, “The Policy and Science of Regional Conservation,” Chapter 1 in Continental Conservation.
Michael Soulè and Reed Noss, “Rewilding and Biodiversity as Complementary Goals for Continental Conservation,” Wild Earth, Fall 1998, 22.
William Lynn, “Deep Rewilding” Wildlands Network blog.
“Rewilding North America: A Vision for Conservation in the 21st Century” by Dave Foreman (Island Press 2004). Order from The Rewilding Institute.
“Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks” edited by Michael E. Soulè and John Terborgh (Island Press 1999). Order from The Rewilding Institute.
Crutzen PJ (2002) Geology of mankind. Nature 415(6867):23.
Sandom C, Faurby S, Sandel B, Svenning J-C (2014) Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change. Proc Biol Sci 281(1787):20133254.
Turvey ST, Fritz SA (2011) The ghosts of mammals past: Biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1577):2564–2576.
Barnosky AD, Koch PL, Feranec RS, Wing SL, Shabel AB (2004) Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents. Science 306(5693):70–75.
Dirzo R, et al. (2014) Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science 345(6195):401–406.
Estes JA, et al. (2011) Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science 333(6040):301–306.
Ripple WJ, et al. (2014) Status and ecological effects of the World’s largest carnivores. Science 343(6167):1241484.
Terborgh J, Estes JA, eds (2010) Trophic Cascades: Predators, Prey, and the Changing Dynamics of Nature (Island Press, Washington, DC).
Soule M, Noss R (1998) Rewilding and biodiversity: Complementary goals for continental conservation. Wild Earth 8(3):1–11.
Zimov SA, et al. (1995) Steppe-tundra transition: A herbivore-driven biome shift at the end of the Pleistocene. Am Nat 146(5):765–794.
Baerselman F, Vera F (1995) Nature Development. An Exploratory Study for the Construction of Ecological Networks (Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, The Hague, The Netherlands).
Jørgensen D (2015) Rethinking rewilding. Geoforum doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.11.016.
Seddon PJ, Griffiths CJ, Soorae PS, Armstrong DP (2014) Reversing defaunation: Restoring species in a changing world. Science 345(6195):406–412.
Navarro LM, Pereira HM (2012) Rewilding abandoned landscapes in Europe. Ecosystems (N Y) 15(6):900–912.
Schnitzler A (2014) Towards a new European wilderness: Embracing unmanaged forest growth and the decolonisation of nature. Landscape Urban Plan 126:74–80.
Donlan CJ, et al. (2006) Pleistocene rewilding: An optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation. Am Nat 168(5):660–681.
Donlan J, et al. (2005) Re-wilding North America. Nature 436(7053):913–914.
Galetti M (2004) Parks of the Pleistocene: Recreating the Cerrado and the Pantanal with megafauna. Nat Conserv 2(1):93–100.
Smith FA, et al. (2010) The evolution of maximum body size of terrestrial mammals. Science 330(6008):1216–1219.
Nenzén HK, Montoya D, Varela S (2014) The impact of 850,000 years of climate changes on the structure and dynamics of mammal food webs. PLoS One 9(9):e106651.
Carrasco MA, Barnosky AD, Graham RW (2009) Quantifying the extent of North American mammal extinction relative to the pre-anthropogenic baseline. PLoS One 4(12):e8331.
Janzen DH, Martin PS (1982) Neotropical anachronisms: The fruits the gomphotheres ate. Science 215(4528):19–27.
Hayward MW (2009) Conservation management for the past, present and future. Biodivers Conserv 18(4):765–775.
Sandom C, Donlan CJ, Svenning J-C, Hansen D (2013) Rewilding. Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2, eds Macdonald DW, Willis KJ (Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK), pp 430–451.
Hansen DM, Donlan CJ, Griffiths CJ, Campbell KJ (2010) Ecological history and latent conservation potential: Large and giant tortoises as a model for taxon substitutions. Ecography 33(2):272–284.
Reardon S (2014) Rewilding: The next big thing? New Sci 221(2958):40–43.
Terborgh J, et al. (1999) The role of top carnivores in regulating terrestrial ecosystems. Continental Conservation—Scientic Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks, eds Soulé ME, Terborgh J (Island Press, Washington, DC), pp 39–64.
Haynes G (2012) Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers. Geomorphology 157–158:99–107.
Morrison JC, Sechrest W, Dinerstein E, Wilcove DS, Lamoreux JF (2007) Persistence of large mammal faunas as indicators of global human impacts. J Mammal 88(6):1363–1380.
Schmölcke U, Zachos FE (2005) Holocene distribution and extinction of the moose (Alces alces, Cervidae) in Central Europe. Mamm Biol 70(6):329–344.
Laliberte AS, Ripple WJ (2004) Range contractions of North American carnivores and ungulates. Bioscience 54(2):123–138.
Crees JJ, Turvey ST (2014) Holocene extinction dynamics of Equus hydruntinus, a late-surviving European megafaunal mammal. Quat Sci Rev 91:16–29.
Smith FA, Elliott SM, Lyons SK (2010) Methane emissions from extinct megafauna. Nat Geosci 3(6):374–375.
Gill JL (2014) Ecological impacts of the late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions. New Phytol 201(4):1163–1169.
Sandom CJ, Ejrnæs R, Hansen MDD, Svenning J-C (2014) High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(11):4162–4167.
Doughty CE, Wolf A, Field CB (2010) Biophysical feedbacks between the Pleistocene megafauna extinction and climate: The first human-induced global warming? Geophys Res Lett 37(15):L15703.
Cenizo MM, Agnolin FL, Pomi LH (2015) A new Pleistocene bird assemblage from the southern Pampas (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 420:65–81.
Tyrberg T (2008) The Late Pleistocene continental avian extinction—An evaluation of the fossil evidence. Oryctos 7:249–269.
Sánchez MV, Genise JF, Bellosi ES, Román-Carrión JL, Cantil LF (2013) Dung beetle brood balls from Pleistocene highland palaeosols of Andean Ecuador: A reassessment of Sauer’s Coprinisphaera and their palaeoenvironments. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 386:257–274.
Chamberlain CP, et al. (2005) Pleistocene to recent dietary shifts in California condors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(46):16707–16711.
Côté SD, Rooney TP, Tremblay J-P, Dussault C, Waller DM (2004) Ecological impacts of deer overabundance. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:113–147.
Campos-Arceiz A, Blake S (2011) Megagardeners of the forests—The role of elephants in seed dispersal. Acta Oecol 37(6):542–553.
Chapron G, et al. (2014) Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346(6216):1517–1519.
Deinet S, et al. (2013) Wildlife Comeback in Europe: The Recovery of Selected Mammal and Bird Species. Final Report to Rewilding Europe by ZSL, Birdlife International and the European Bird Census Council (Zoological Society of London, London).
Ripple WJ, Beschta RL (2012) Large predators limit herbivore densities in northern forest ecosystems. Eur J Wildl Res 58(4):733–742.
Owen-Smith N (1987) Pleistocene extinctions: The pivotal role of megaherbivores. Palaeobiology 13(3):351–362.
Hopcraft JG, Olff H, Sinclair AR (2010) Herbivores, resources and risks: Alternating regulation along primary environmental gradients in savannas. Trends Ecol Evol 25(2):119–128.
Van Valkenburgh B, Hayward MW, Ripple WJ, Meloro C, Roth VL (2016) The impact of large terrestrial carnivores on Pleistocene ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:862–867.
Bocherens H (2015) Isotopic tracking of large carnivore palaeoecology in the mammoth steppe. Quat Sci Rev 117:42–71.
Coltrain JB, et al. (2004) Rancho La Brea stable isotope biogeochemistry and its implications for the palaeoecology of late Pleistocene, coastal southern California. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 205(3-4):199–219.
Skogland T (1991) What are the effects of predators on large ungulate populations? Oikos 61(3):401–411.
Doughty CE, Wolf A, Malhi Y (2013) The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia. Nat Geosci 6(9):761–764.
Hobbs NT (1996) Modification of ecosystems by ungulates. J Wildl Manage 60(4):695–713.
Ripple WJ, Van Valkenburgh B (2010) Linking top-down forces to the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. Bioscience 60(7):516–526.
Duffy JE, et al. (2007) The functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems: Incorporating trophic complexity. Ecol Lett 10(6):522–538.
Waldram MS, Bond WJ, Stock WD (2008) Ecological engineering by a mega-grazer: White rhino impacts on a South African savanna. Ecosystems (N Y) 11(1):101–112.
Gill JL, Williams JW, Jackson ST, Lininger KB, Robinson GS (2009) Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America. Science 326(5956):1100–1103.
Rule S, et al. (2012) The aftermath of megafaunal extinction: Ecosystem transformation in Pleistocene Australia. Science 335(6075):1483–1486.
Dobson AP (2014) Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems. PLoS Biol 12(12):e1002025.
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ (2012) The role of large predators in maintaining riparian plant communities and river morphology. Geomorphology 157-158:88–98.
Hebblewhite M, Smith DW (2010) Wolf community ecology: Ecosystem effects of recovering wolves in Banff and Yellowstone national parks. The World of Wolves: New Perspectives on Ecology, Behavior and Management, eds Musiani M, Boitani L, Paquet P (Univ of Calgary Press, Calgary, AB, Canada), pp 69–120.
Callan R, Nibbelink NP, Rooney TP, Wiedenhoeft JE, Wydeven AP (2013) Recolonizing wolves trigger a trophic cascade in Wisconsin (USA). J Ecol 101(4):837–845.
Kuijper DPJ, et al. (2013) Landscape of fear in Europe: Wolves affect spatial patterns of ungulate browsing in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Ecography 36(12):1263–1275.
Vera FWM (2009) Large-scale nature development—The Oostvaardersplassen. British Wildlife 20(5):28–36.
Smit C, Ruifrok JL, van Klink R, Olff H (2015) Rewilding with large herbivores: The importance of grazing refuges for sapling establishment and wood-pasture formation. Biol Conserv 182:134–142
Cornelissen P, Bokdam J, Sykora K, Berendse F (2014) Effects of large herbivores on wood pasture dynamics in a European wetland system. Basic Appl Ecol 15(5):396–406.
Zimov SA (2005) Pleistocene park: Return of the mammoth’s ecosystem. Science 308(5723):796–798.
Zimov SA, Zimov NS, Tikhonov AN, Chapin FS III (2012) Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon. Quat Sci Rev 57:26–45.
Hansen DM, Galetti M (2009) The forgotten megafauna. Science 324(5923):42–43.
Griffiths CJ, et al. (2012) The welfare implications of using exotic tortoises as ecological replacements. PLoS One 7(6):e39395.
Griffiths CJ, Hansen DM, Jones CG, Zuël N, Harris S (2011) Resurrecting extinct interactions with extant substitutes. Curr Biol 21(9):762–765.
Griffiths CJ, Zuë LN, Jones CG, Ahamud Z, Harris S (2013) Assessing the potential to restore historic grazing ecosystems with tortoise ecological replacements. Conserv Biol 27(4):690–700.
Hunter EA, Gibbs JP, Cayot LJ, Tapia W (2013) Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions. Conserv Biol 27(4):701–709.
Gibbs JP, Hunter EA, Shoemaker KT, Tapia WH, Cayot LJ (2014) Demographic outcomes and ecosystem implications of giant tortoise reintroduction to Española Island, Galapagos. PLoS One 9(10):e110742.
Wilder BT, et al. (2014) Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island. PLoS One 9(3):e91358.
Long JL (2003) Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence (CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK).
Litvinov YN (2014) Mammals of the Taymyr Peninsula (biodiversity and organization of communities). Contemp Probl Ecol 7(6):607–617.
Lee WG, Wood JR, Rogers GM (2010) Legacy of avian-dominated plant-herbivore systems in New Zealand. N Z J Ecol 34(1):28–47.
Beever E, Tausch R, Thogmartin W (2008) Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges. Plant Ecol 196(2):163–184.
Levin PS, Ellis J, Petrik R, Hay ME (2002) Indirect effects of feral horses on estuarine communities. Conserv Biol 16(5):1364–1371.
Turner JW, Morrison ML (2001) Influence of predation by mountain lions on numbers and survivorship of a feral horse population. Southwest Nat 46(2):183–190.
Aslan CE, Zavaleta ES, Croll DON, Tershy B (2012) Effects of native and non-native vertebrate mutualists on plants. Conserv Biol 26(5):778–789.
Pires MM, et al. (2014) Reconstructing past ecological networks: The reconfiguration of seed-dispersal interactions after megafaunal extinction. Oecologia 175(4):1247–1256.
Donatti CI, Galetti M, Pizo MA, Guimaraes PR Jr, Jordano P (2007) Living in the land of ghosts: Fruit traits and the importance of large mammals as seed dispersers in the Pantanal, Brazil. Seed Dispersal: Theory and Its Application in a Changing World, eds Dennis AJ, Green RJ, Schupp EW, Westcott DA (CAB International, Wallingford, UK), pp 104–123.
Ordiz A, Bischof R, Swenson JE (2013) Saving large carnivores, but losing the apex predator? Biol Conserv 168:128–133.
Kuijper DPJ (2011) Lack of natural control mechanisms increases wildlife–forestry conflict in managed temperate European forest systems. Eur J For Res 130(6):895–909.
Hegland SJ, Lilleeng MS, Moe SR (2013) Old-growth forest floor richness increases with red deer herbivory intensity. For Ecol Manage 310:267–274
Newsome TM, et al. (2015) Resolving the value of the dingo in ecological restoration. Restor Ecol 23(3):201–208.
Hughes FMR, et al. (2011) Monitoring and evaluating large-scale, ‘open-ended’ habitat creation projects: A journey rather than a destination. J Nat Conserv 19(4):245–253.
Carbone C, Mace GM, Roberts SC, Macdonald DW (1999) Energetic constraints on the diet of terrestrial carnivores. Nature 402(6759):286–288.
Svenning J-C (2007) ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’ merits serious consideration also outside North America. IBS Newsletter 5(3):3–9..
Beale CM, et al. (2013) Ten lessons for the conservation of African savannah ecosystems. Biol Conserv 167:224–232.
Somers MJ, Hayward M, eds (2012) Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential or a Riposte to Threatening Processes? (Springer Science & Business Media, New York).
Poschlod P, Bonn S (1998) Changing dispersal processes in the central European landscape since the last ice age: An explanation for the actual decrease of plant species richness in different habitats? Acta Botanica Neerlandica 47(1):27–44.
Rosenzweig ML (2003) Reconciliation ecology and the future of species diversity. Oryx 37(2):194–205.
Phalan B, Onial M, Balmford A, Green RE (2011) Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: Land sharing and land sparing compared. Science 333(6047):1289–1291.
Imhoff ML, et al. (2004) Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production. Nature 429(6994):870–873.
Cerqueira Y, et al. (2015) Ecosystem services: The opportunities of rewilding in Europe. Rewilding European Landscapes, eds Pereira HM, Navarro LM (Springer, Heidelberg), pp 47–64.
Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Harris JA (2009) Novel ecosystems: Implications for conservation and restoration. Trends Ecol Evol 24(11):599–605
Bowman D (2012) Conservation: Bring elephants to Australia? Nature 482(7383):30.
Milner JM, Van Beest FM, Schmidt KT, Brook RK, Storaas T (2014) To feed or not to feed? Evidence of the intended and unintended effects of feeding wild ungulates. J Wildl Manage 78(8):1322–1334
Tanentzap AJ, Kirby KJ, Goldberg EE (2012) Slow responses of ecosystems to reductions in deer (Cervidae) populations and strategies for achieving recovery. For Ecol Manage 264:159–166.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK).
Post E, Pedersen C (2008) Opposing plant community responses to warming with and without herbivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(34):12353–12358.
Tanentzap AJ, Coomes DA (2012) Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems: do browsing and grazing herbivores matter? Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 87(1):72–94.
IUCN/SSC (2013) Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations. Version 1.0 (IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland).
Burney DA, Juvik JO, Burney LP, Diagne T (2012) Can unwanted suburban tortoises rescue native Hawaiian plants? Tortoise 1(1):104–115.
Seddon PJ, Moehrenschlager A, Ewen J (2014) Reintroducing resurrected species: Selecting DeExtinction candidates. Trends Ecol Evol 29(3):140–147.
Redford KH, Adams W, Mace GM (2013) Synthetic biology and conservation of nature: Wicked problems and wicked solutions. PLoS Biol 11(4):e1001530.
Donlan J (2014) De-extinction in a crisis discipline. Front Biogeogr 6(1):25–28.
Peterken GF (1977) Habitat conservation priorities in British and European woodlands. Biol Conserv 11(3):223–236.
Faurby S, Svenning J-C (2015) A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Mol Phylogenet Evol 84:14–26.
Faurby S, Svenning J-C (2015) Historic and prehistoric human-driven extinctions have reshaped global mammal diversity patterns. Divers Distrib doi:10.1111/ddi.12369.
Owen-Smith N (2013) Contrasts in the large herbivore faunas of the southern continents in the late Pleistocene and the ecological implications for human origins. J Biogeogr 40(7):1215–1224.