The Wild Horse and Burro Act, in 1971, was indeed purposeful. When combined with other Laws, and initiated as part of a conservation effort to provide America and our government with actions to start safeguarding America’s Public Lands, there existed strength in the law. Government agencies and special interests chipped-away at those laws, to the shell of the law which exists today, with no reliable content.
By the 1980’s there grew enormous considerations to not only assess the apparent nature and resource problems, but many observed throughout the following years the magnitude and the environmental threats that began to exist under government agency responsibility. The assessments and accountability toward each foreseen the events of today – a thorough mismanagement of America’s Public Lands, as well as forestry, and combined with extreme faulty wildlife management.
We find the destruction of Public Lands quite obvious – the mismanagement of America’s wildlife to such a point there exists only 50% actually alive today; this fact is very important to us all, as many significant attributes to such elements as reforestation and other sustainability situations provide our healthy existence on this planet.
Let’s be clear about this — these are not options — these are mandatory, I repeat here, sustainability situations for our survival on this planet of ours; and to cease this type of mismanagement is a mandatory reality right now – today!
We have honest scientists stating clearly that both humans and wildlife do not appear to remain sustainable in the near future, if the current situations remain in place; our sustainability upon this planet appears questionable past 2021, which means we will have destroyed all the significant “things” we needed to sustain life past this date of 2021. . . America, we have a problem!
The point is that many times these elements assuredly given to legislators as well as upper management and supervisory staffs in government, but ignored by the more current and passive government agencies, to the point of sever irresponsibility, which often leads to criminal activity as well. The irresponsibility and incompetence simply grew worse out of a tragic blatantly capacity to service special interest groups only.
Average Public Lands managed by Federal Agencies (Monopoly?)
The current mind-set of many, this author included, is if the government is going to be a business-support outlet only, then they should be treated like a business – No More Monopolized Public Lands — their responsibility to manage America’s Lands should be revoked!
As far as we can deduct the actual acres government agencies are responsible for remains confusing at best; and believe me much of the information is hidden, or stuck in a book somewhere in a small county office where cobwebs and black widows await trespassers. So the sum of all that acreage that is available for us to observe, or judicially owned by our Federal government is 2.27 billion acres of land, mostly in the western United States. In the East, for example, it is estimated at 467,759 acres of land on the here-and-there approach toward designation – in truth just an average, just as above and out west.
But this is not about land ownership, it is about mismanaged lands, both Federal and State, and what it is we as America can do about it as soon as possible. Our very life and the cohabitation of those wildlife and vegetation and waterways depend on our conducting a truthful and responsible methodology of conservation, with “humane principles” and “ethical management” a priority.
47% of the 11 coterminous western states are federally owned. This leads to many problems in the west, as many groups want the Public Lands for themselves; and just as many want short-term profits and could care less if the rest of America dies due to Public Lands destruction. ( i.e. bigthink.com/strange-maps/291-federal-lands-in-the-us )
But this is due to the undermining of laws, by special interests and coexistence with federal employees — sadly, the situation grew way beyond Conflict of Interest, and many say illegal attributes toward criminality exist within both of these special interest groups combined with federal employees and their Behind-Closed-Doors negotiating.
Truth Does Not Change – People’s Perception Often Misled
Think about that the next time a cattle rancher, an oil executive, a mining executive, or any corporation in search of profits by the use of Public Lands, and tells you, “ . . . Oh, its all okay, as those others,” pointedly looking at those who discover the conflicts-of-interests and say with a smirk and condescending voice, “. . . who say it is not, are simply too emotional, and really do not see the reality.
Then they give you a vast Howdy-Doody smile – in a salesman type jest, as if they are angelic and here to assist you in your life endeavors. No, they are not. It is a fact they are on Public Lands to take advantage of government agency mismanagement mixed with incompetence, in total. And right now they are destroying Public Lands at a rapid pace, and eliminating much of America’s wildlife – with a smile on their face and telling everyone everything is okay.
Strategies – Paradigms – and Good Management Principles
We are a group of people, of advocates, who agree that everything on this planet is connected, and referenced as such by good science. This group distinguishes itself with principles of sound ethics, of sound management theory toward application, of humane reasoning, integrity, as well as Humane Principle’s of management and administering corrective actions to America’s Federal Lands – Public Lands belong to all American’s, and that’s the bottom line here.
This is not within the landscape of emotion, rather, a sound theory and process of establishing paradigms to enhance or to increase our survival percentages right here on our Planet Earth; which currently is low, to extremely low in chances of survival for even another century.
We have found, within an undebatable context, no one is watching out for American’s interest. What we have found is our legislator’s have certainly represented, over the past couple of decades, special interests and conflicting attributes of benefit themselves only.
So we are suggesting Mitigation Programs for the significant problems that have not only been quantified within the past decade, quite readily; but we also understand there does exist also, off-shoot programs to better understand the problems and threats not yet documented.
We then combine this with research into a given biological habitat zone, or controversial area. Today this numbers many, and through data gathering and experienced-reasoning, we can develop an honest assessment – and will continue to do so despite —
- Government agencies lack of responsible reporting;
- Skewed wildlife and wild horse counts infringed upon by special interests or monetary gains by both commercial and non-profit communities;
- Truth about destructive sequence of events rather than pretend or disguised under cover-ups and misinformation, then given to the public and legislators alike;
- And lastly, but not an end to the questionable practices of government agencies today – that being the criminal conduct happening daily but covered-up quite well, as one government employee states, “. . . the criminal behavior goes all the way to the top of each government agency, otherwise it simply could not happen.”
The Priorities – Cohabitative Circumstances Promoting Life
Government agencies today are not achieving proper management levels through their catastrophic, destructive, and irresponsive management paradigms. The fact is many government agencies are mismanaging America’s Environment, wildlife, and federal lands, because there is no checks and balance systems in place. Catch-as catch-can permits issued for profit, combined with special interests and ignoring laws, is not management, and never has been. It is neglectful and irresponsible.
Once again this is not emotional reasoning, but stemmed from what we see daily from government agencies. sound science, logic, many appropriate and well referenced studies, and an extraordinary amount of effort to explore the many regions in question – government lands in its entirety. The reality is much of the destruction and complacency toward the overwhelming destruction, in truth, is not a problem that is difficult to see at all.
Once again the overwhelming truth does not change, but our government seems to want a different perception of the truth, or to convince us they are competent managers of our lands and wildlife; which it is obvious they are not, as there exists too many questions that remain ignored or unanswered, and too may ecological biosphere’s damaged beyond repair due to mismanagement.
So we as American’s demand the following:
- Sound resource-maintenance be put into place adequately and enforceable;
- We demand that a proper checks-n-balance system, with honesty and unbiased, be placed into effect to watch over those who would destroy our federal public lands, and if such developments show destruction, legislation put into effect that will stop it immediately;
- A proper interpretation, honest evaluations based on truth and not special interests or narrow percentage of American’s perception of our public lands and its use, of the management paradigms that enhance, not destroy our lands and wildlife;
- Sound monitoring of the paradigms put into place, and remain active, with proper legislation to enhance and promote good management, and legislation that can void and cease all negative activity when placing the priorities in jeopardy, or that is sustainability toward life, both human and wildlife cohabitation, the terrestrial environments, the marine environments, and the water and atmospheric environments;
- Lastly, within this discussion, American’s demand that we place no limitations on science or research, in order to obtain the truth of matters of significance of life on this planet, and the sustainability of it cohabitating within its proper balance and systematic growth – an All-Data and Thorough-Data management situation to be definitive and put into place, and protected by Law, as well as the Truth within things such as Environmental Assessments and other pertinent information given to the public and administrators of Biological Habitats and management of each.
We will be taking a more elaborate view of the fundamentals suggested within this preview of upcoming papers. We are outlining definitive resolutions to the problems we are facing with our environment. These are resolutions not based on what many government managers state are emotion, because that is their condescending remarks toward taxpayers, American’s and the people that pay them — how they forget that is their reality, all else is — We Can and Will Demand Their Replacement if They Insist on Their Continuation of Disrespecting the American Public! —
Never the less, the problems we are confronted with, to include humane and all life survival on this planet, had been generated from mismanagement and lack of good science to fulfill the needs of our sustainable biological habitats, and with that we only have to look as far as both State and Federal government agencies, and stress the fact they have mismanaged out environment entirely –
It is now time for change and that includes changing the entire structure of these government agencies – I would state actually, American’s need to demand a Change for Resolution and for our Very Existence on this planet of ours – Planet Earth! Papers to follow.
Editorial, Agriculture’s Misnamed Agency, New York Times (July 19, 2013); Bergstrom, J.B., Arias, L.C., Davidson, A.D., Ferguson, A.W., Randa, L.A. & Sheffield, S.R., 2013, License to kill: reforming federal wildlife control to restore biodiversity and ecosystem function, Conservation Letters, v. 6, p. 1-12.
Neighbors of Cuddy Mountain v. U.S. Forest Serv., 137 F.3d 1372, 1379 (9th Cir. 1998) (“Some quantified or detailed information is required. Without such information, neither the courts nor the public, in reviewing the [the agency’s] decisions, can be assured that the [agency] provided the hard look that it is required to provide.”).
Brainerd SA, Andrén H, Bangs EE, Bradley EH, Fontaine JA, et al. (2008) The effects of breeder loss on wolves. J Wildl Manage 72: 89–98. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2193/2006-305/abstract.
Bull, Joseph, et al. “Survival on the border: a population model to evaluate management options for Norway’s wolves Canis lupus.” Wildlife Biology 15.4 (2009): 412-424.http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2981/08-010.
Creel, Scott, and Jay J. Rotella. “Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus).” PLoS One 5.9 (2010): e12918. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012918
Gehring TM, Kohn BE, Gehring JL, Anderson EM (2003) Limits to plasticity in gray wolf, pack structure: conservation implications for recovering populations. Can Field-Nat 117: 419–423.
Haber GC (1996) Biological, Conservation, and Ethical Implications of Exploiting and Controlling Wolves. Conserv Biol 10: 1068–1081. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.95366.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.95366.x/abstract;jsessionid=6772F96C7EE96572972D5516F1D0C1D1.f02t0
Knowlton FF, Gese EM, Jaeger MM (1999) Coyote depredation control: and interface between biology and management. J Range Manage 52: 398–412.
Rutledge, Linda Y., et al. (2010) Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs. Biological Conservation 143.2: 332-339.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320709004583
Rutledge, Linda Y., et al. “Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes.” Ecology and evolution 2.1 (2012): 19-33.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.61/full
Sparkman, Amanda M., Lisette P. Waits, and Dennis L. Murray. “Social and demographic effects of anthropogenic mortality: A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in the red wolf.” PloS one 6.6 (2011): e20868 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020868
Reference on Horses:
Wallach AD, Ritchie EG, Read J, O’Neill AJ (2009) More than Mere Numbers: The Impact of Lethal Control on the Social Stability of a Top-Order Predator. PLoS ONE 4(9): e6861. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006861 http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006861
Wild horses and burros are supposed to be treated as “components of the public lands”. 16 U.S.C. § 1333(a) The law is clear that “wild free-roaming horses and burros shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death” and entitled to roam free on public lands where they were living at the time the Act was passed in 1971. 16 U.S.C. § 1331 These legally protected areas are known as “herd areas,” and are defined as “the geographic area identified as having been used by a herd as its habitat in 1971.” 43 C.F.R. § 4700.0-5(d).
The WFRHBA also authorizes designation of specific ranges for wild horses and burros. “Range’ means the amount of land necessary to sustain an existing herd or herds …and which is devoted principally but not necessarily exclusively to their welfare in keeping with the multiple-use management concept for the public lands”. 16 USCS §§ 1332(c), 1333(a).
Though “excess” wild horses and burros are to be removed, in general, “[m]anagement activities affecting wild horses and burros shall be undertaken with the goal of maintaining free-roaming behavior.” 16 U.S.C. §1333, 43 CFR 4700.0-6 “All management activities shall be at the minimal feasible level”. 16 U.S.C. §1333(a) It is illegal to maliciously or negligently injure or harass wild horses or burros protected by the Act, treat them inhumanely or use them for commercial gain. 43 CFR §4770.1
In 1971 the Wild Free Roaming Horses and Burros Act (WFRHBA) was passed to provide broad protections for wild horses and burros on public lands.
The law states that “wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West…[T]hey contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people”. 16 U.S.C. §1331 et seq.
The Bureau of Land Management is the agency within the Department of Interior that is responsible for enforcing the WFRHBA. According to WFRHBA and its own regulations, BLM must protect wild horses and burros from unauthorized capture, branding, harassment or death and provide these animals with humane care and treatment. 43 C.F.R. § 4700. ”
Humane treatment means handling compatible with animal husbandry practices accepted in the veterinary community, without causing unnecessary stress or suffering to a wild horse or burro.” 43 CFR 4700.0-5(e)
The BLM is directed to protect the wild horses and burros “in a manner that is designed to achieve and maintain a thriving natural ecological balance on the public lands” and “protect the natural ecological balance of all wildlife species which inhabit such lands, particularly endangered wildlife species. Any adjustments in forage allocations on any such lands shall take into consideration the needs of other wildlife species which inhabit such lands.” 16 U.S.C. §1333(a).
The Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 amended the WFRHBA to require BLM to determine appropriate management levels (AML) and maintain an inventory of wild horses and burros to help achieve these goals.
The amendment also addressed “excess” horses defined to mean wild horses and burros to be removed from an area “to preserve and maintain a thriving natural ecological balance and multiple-use relationship in that area” or for some other legal reason. See 16 USC §1332(f). The WFRHBA says that before removing wild horses and burros, a determination must be made that there is an overpopulation and removal is indicated “so as to restore a thriving natural ecological balance to the range, and protect the range from the deterioration associated with overpopulation”. 16 U.S.C. §1333(b)(2)
BLM has expanded the multiple use concept beyond the plain language of WFRHBA
The BLM has interpreted the WFRHBA to mean it can “manage” wild horses and burros with the goal of allowing multiple uses on all public lands including the herd areas. But, though the statute mentions “multiple-use relationship” in connection with specified ranges, it is very clear that the directive is to manage these animals otherwise only to “maintain a thriving natural ecological balance on the public lands” and “protect the natural ecological balance of all wildlife species which inhabit such lands, particularly endangered wildlife species”.
In effect, WFRHBA authorizes only limited interference with wild horses and burros in herd areas where they were living in 1971.
Nothing about removing wild horses and burros from herd areas where they lived in 1971 to allow multiple use such as cattle grazing, recreation for off road vehicles, mining or development. Also, protecting the ecological balance of all wildlife has never meant rounding up and removing whole species. Especially when there is a law that explicitly protects their right to exist in historic herd areas.
Even designated ranges managed under a multiple use concept are to be “devoted principally” to wild horses and burros. The wild horses and burros on these lands are not to be eliminated for cattle or mining or recreation or even secondary to these other uses.
Despite the limited authority to interfere with wild horses and burros under WFRHBA, the BLM has decided, however, the multiple public use concept applies to all herd areas as well as ranges.
BLM even issued a regulation that effectively rewrites WFRHBA to say the “objectives of these regulations are management of wild horses and burros as an integral part of the natural system of the public lands under the principle of multiple use”. 43 CFR § 4700.0-2
Yet, the WFRHBA says only that wild horses and burros “are to be considered in the area where presently found, as an integral part of the natural system of the public lands”. 16 U.S.C. §1331.
Essentially the BLM, for example, is in contempt, or in illegal realms when they manage the wild horse herds as they do today – due diligence for every American to know the laws is the only way to make government agencies to abide by the laws just as we have to do on a daily basis . . .