Monthly Archives: January 2015

Wild Horses, Welfare Ranching Economics and the Truth; What the Bureau of Land Management do not want Taxpayers to know

article photo sm

“The fact is the BLM and Welfare Ranchers are now stooping to levels of coercion and bully tactics to keep functioning as they have in the past. But the truth has an odd way of seeking power over misinformation, lies, and criminality. . .” — John Cox, Horse Advocate

Many people assume, since most of the western landscape is given over to livestock production, that ranching must be economically important. But, as economist Thomas Power points out “. . . the livestock industry contributes almost nothing to western economies, even at the local level.”

The western rancher is dependent on what can be classified as no more than a welfare program. Not so ironic, the low fees paid by ranchers to graze upon federal lands only the tip of the iceberg, so to speak.

“Other subsidies include taxpayer-supported research at western land grant universities, as well as agricultural exemptions that lower property taxes paid by ranchers. Most often Welfare Ranchers pay no tax at all on their subsidies, even though nothing more than profit. There are handouts to help with nearly every problem: drought relief, low-interest agricultural loans, emergency livestock feed programs, emergency grazing on Conservation Reserve Program lands, to name a few.

Even many of the fences crisscrossing the West’s “open” spaces are paid for by American taxpayers, and not so surprising, the maintaining of those fences costs taxpayers millions of dollars a year in subsidies, going directly to the Welfare Rancher Grazing Permit Holder. Scam!

Seeing the actual Welfare Rancher invoices and budgets simply makes one’s head spin, with a big neon-sign in the brain that screams — SCAM – SCAM – SCAM.

Bureau of Land Management and Welfare Ranchers

If this is not enough to make one’s disappointment in our government and welfare ranching programs questionable as authentic-necessity, the big lie, it goes much further. Ranchers are literally mortgaging the public’s resources for their private benefit. There exists a connection between the banking industry and public lands ranching, and ranchers are able to take out loans based on the “value” of their grazing permits. This certainly questionable arrangement forces government officials to consider the status of a rancher’s debt when making range management decisions, rather than focusing on what is best for the land.

Beyond the economic subsidies are the health, social, and environmental costs of the animal agriculture industry in general – the larger context within which public lands livestock grazing is properly viewed, but awkwardly at best. Welfare Ranching’s non-essential aspects sticks-out definitively.

Situations such as loss of arable land, wild horse assassination and evacuation, wildlife killed, ecosystems destroyed, land desertification, tropical deforestation, simply add to urban overcrowding, and poverty, may appear unconnected to problems of ecosystem degradation in the arid West – but in reality — it is all connected.

It is all enshrined into the chaos of government mismanagement and awkward loop-holes in law, which is not confronted by our lawmakers in Congress at present. One has to wonder why this is, so obvious and yet ignored so much – and costing taxpayers billions of dollars – SCAM!

“The important situation here is a disgusting fact that all these difficulties are linked-directly or indirectly to an international system of meat production and an increasingly global pattern of meat consumption.” Welfare Ranching is simply a part of these destructive worldwide trends. But the despicable fact that taxpayers should be especially attentive toward, is the unqualified and unproductive resource of Welfare Ranching itself and on Public Lands, especially in the west.”

In reality it is and remains today and as stated earlier, simply a Welfare Program, or what many refer to as a Monetary-Scam, to obtain taxpayer money. The fact is Welfare Rancher’s, as well as the Bureau of Land management, do not want taxpayer’s to know or acknowledge that they would not exist in the commercial world of ranching, and for several legitimate reasons. And that indeed, their entire scheme or rancher landscape virtues, are based on acquiring a Grazing Permit for what one can term, pretending to be a rancher, but in reality they are not at all. They are simply profitable-posers, based on misinformation and lies – Yes, this simple.

Burdensome to the Bureau of Land management, as well as Welfare Ranchers, is the fact their less than 1% of domestic sales figures, more than demonstrate the unnecessary need for Welfare Ranching. And yet, American Taxpayer’s subsidies this supposed non-industry in the $$$Billions. The latest estimated figure of one pound of not so good hamburger from these Welfare Rancher’s in the west would cost in excess of $942.00 per pound. Wrap your mind around that figure (GAO Report)

Burdensome as well, is the fact this situation requires a tremendous amount of lies, innuendo, misinformation, intimidation and coercion, and throw in many facets of criminal conduct in the pile as well, and we have a situation that actually disrespects’ the American Public and Taxpayers tremendously.


It becomes very obvious to many of us who endeavor into the research and writing about Public Lands and Wild Horses that Welfare Ranching is simply an unneeded necessity in America.

The fact is, if a rancher has 10 acres near Public Lands, perhaps running 10 AUM Units of cattle – 1 Unit = 1 cow/1 calf, and obtains a Grazing Permit, that another millionaire is made purely from taxpayer subsidies. We can also make the statement another way, and simply state what it really is = Welfare.

A very common example: Just as quick as a rancher receives a Grazing Permit, he then receives a loan substantial enough to purchase 3,000 AUM Units of cattle, in order to graze his cattle on America’s Public Lands, and within his allotment of several hundred thousand acres. Often another problem does arise, and the land-issue and ecological system, most often will not support this amount of cattle – so as mentioned above many circumstances develop, and also quite costly to taxpayers.

The misinformation and lies remains substantial, to keep cattle on Public Lands, which overburden the entire Environmental System. Good science also references this quite abundantly — except BLM, who demanded cattle be taken out of any research data that they may fund — so they can blame wild horses and other hooved animals for the tremendous ecosystem-destruction that cattle indeed do …

Now the Bureau of Land Management, because the Grazing Permit has secured this situation of the loan, their land management perspective changes entirely. Now this incompetent government agency’s paradigm, toward this also incompetent Welfare Rancher, has changed, and has to make sure the rancher does not default on their loan. And worse, this non-ending funnel of extravagance and very profitable to Welfare Ranchers, this fellow can also purchase a water well within his allotment – yes, Public lands. And it gets worse . . .

Need we not forget this is on Public Lands, and the Grazing Permit gives them the right to purchase the water-well within their Grazing Permit allotment (i.e. By Policy). This rancher, in this scenario and very true of most Welfare Ranchers, now have control of water, an extravagance in the desert arid areas, that they also sell-back to the government.

Ironically, this rancher will invoice and charge taxpayers, within the realm of subsidies, the amount of gallons used from their purchased water-well to water his own cattle. No one is there to monitor the water used, so an unethical situation turns into an even Large and unmonitored, unchecked, and unregulated money-stream for the Welfare Rancher.

The above is often in the amount of several hundred thousands of dollars to the Welfare Rancher. In Oregon, for example, one Welfare Rancher receives $638,000.00 dollars in subsidies yearly – simply from maintaining a fence-line, that taxpayers subsidized as well, and in total; and also he had purchased a water-well, on Public Lands, and sells it back to himself to water his cattle and pasture lands within his Grazing Permit allotment – his mortgage, which is subsidized through the Grazing Permit as Security to the bank, is $22.4 million dollars, and he had purchased not just a ranch home, but new equipment every few years, a plane, a helicopter, and lord knows how many extravagant vacations and much more.


So it is of no surprise that during a Public meeting in Reno, Nevada the other night, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel blocked any attempt from Wild Horse Advocates to speak. This was a Public Meeting, and “Open” to the Public at large — specifically to question and make suggestions to the BLM in regard to future plans of America’s Public Lands Use.

Welfare Ranchers spoke, Bureau of Land Management personnel spoke and controlled the meeting, and even BLM advocates spoke, as they spoke within the contrived-situation of supporting BLM and Welfare Ranchers.

But the American taxpayers of this land was not represented what so ever and never has been in such meeting as this – and in truth one can say the American Taxpayer was coerced, even bullied off the stage when an attempt was made. So one can honestly can make the statement that BLM, as a government agency, as well as Welfare Ranchers, are out-of-line in total – Both remain a waste of taxpayer money – and both out-of-control and need to be scrutinized as too their necessity and any benefit what so ever to America. From those of us who have studied Public Lands for years now, find no benefit to America’s Public Lands for either the Bureau of Land Management of Welfare Ranching on Public Lands.

We are now confronted with not only misinformation, but bully tactics and coercion tactics from a government agency, and toward the very American Public that pays their tax money yearly, and honestly, and are finally questioning the use of that money. Truthfully, it is about time American’s start questioning the BLM about how frivolous and misguided our tax money is being used!

Just from the fraud, and waste, and misinformation, we are speaking about $-billions upon $-billions of dollars – perhaps why it existed for so long – but now is the time to stop enabling such activity, such criminal behavior, and such unethical actions taking place on America’s Public Lands and by BLM and Welfare Ranching.

The things we have to look at is the necessity — and that can be measured easily — Would America be better off without both the Bureau of Land Management and Welfare Ranching on Public Lands? I posed this question to many biologists, blue-collar workers, veterans, and many other American Taxpayers alike — After discovering the truth — UNEQUVICALLY THE RESPONSE WAS ABOSULTELY YES — AMERICA WOULD BE BETTER OFF WITH BOTH GONE IN TOTAL — American’s have had enough!


Posted by on January 24, 2015 in Uncategorized


America’s Wild Horse Herds, Taxpayer’s, Ignorance and the BLM — An Editorial


There are two potential violators of man’s rights: the criminals and the government. The great achievement of the United States was to draw a distinction between these two — by forbidding to the second the legalized version of the activities of the first.” — 1963 essay “Man’s Rights”

Last evening I watched in horror of horrors, a government agency coerced an American Citizen and Taxpayer from giving her Public Opinion on a controversial circumstance of corruption and contempt, which is ongoing, on our Public Lands.

It was a Public Meeting, given by the Bureau of Land management, to go over the plans for a Wild Horse Herd Roundup. The key phrase here is it was a Public Meeting, so government and the general taxpaying public could contribute to a plan that affects America’s Public Lands as well as America’s Wild Horse Herds, and other wildlife on these same Public Lands.

Just as in Nazi Germany before WWII, Hitler and gang went on a robust and aggressive charge to rid Germans of their dignity – or redefine their dignity within a more “ability-to-manipulate” people, and still receive the virtues of money, power, and land from these same people. Ironically, we do not have to explore the history so much as watch as it unfolds today, within the Bureau of Land Management, Legislators, and corporations and directed toward the American Taxpaying and general Public!

The points here being the aggressive coercive bully tactics used, for example –

1. Holding Public Meetings for general Taxpayer and American Public input, then not allowing the input from selected individuals (they shut the input from the general public down after BLM and their supporters completed their input), and due to situations within BLM employee minds — simply the wrong people going to supply that same input, and the information, though contrary to the situation or plans at that moment, are truthful – and truth is not acceptable within the BLM, which is nothing more than a corporate franchise monopoly on America’s Public Lands, despite the majority of America Taxpayers disliking the situation in total;

2. The criminality, that is often brought up by the American Taxpayers, in this case those who the BLM call Horse Advocates within an attempt to lessen the impact negatively, certainly want the criminal aspects NOT to come out into the open at all, and references as well as many circumstances show beyond a reasonable doubt criminal activity has, and continues to take place;

3. Then we can get to welfare ranching and corporate intrusion and the spending of American Taxpayer’s dollars, yours and mine, in the billions, and only due to the protective elements that this government agency – the BLM and many legislator’s – refrains from simply deleting/void the antiquated and convoluted aspects that allow such government subsidies to be spent upon such non-beneficial as well as non-profitable elements, other than the welfare ranchers and corporations themselves making a lot of money for doing absolutely nothing.

When one considers legislators’ attempting to take away Social Security Benefits, Disabled Veterans Benefits, and other obtained benefits of necessities – i.e. the most tarnished is the school lunch programs for impoverished children, where legislators’ took that away from them in order to give more net profit to corporations and welfare ranchers (worse yet welfare rancher’s sales receipts less than 1% domestically and yearly, so American’s are only supporting net profit, nothing else in reality that is needed) – then America has a Problem – A big Problem that American Taxpayer’s need to know about!

And much worse – these people receiving these ill-gotten subsidies sitting in the crowd and actually Booing people that attempt to practice their 1st and 5th Amendment Rights of the Constitution of Our United States of America.

As a war Veteran myself, I am appalled and totally disgusted at this showing of such disrespect, such disregard to American Taxpayers and the use of their hard earned money for nothing but a scam, and the disrespect these welfare ranchers, BLM employees, and hotel staff has shown against not only the Taxpayers of this land, but toward our horses, our Disabled Veterans, and America’s Elderly folks who help build and nourish this country and America’s Rights to speak out against government agency perversions, subversions, and irresponsible conduct.

The necessity to discontinue the Bureau of Land management due to irresponsible conduct and severe criminality is obvious – earlier investigations found similar circumstance (i.e. 1990-1993 as well as in the early 2000’s) and the criminal aspect tremendous and going totally unchecked – No checks-n-balance systems regulatory devices in place what so ever to oversee this agency.

This is the same government agency that spent in excess of $650,000 in gift card expense last year. It was caught via the government voucher process and an inquisitive mind from another agency. The evidence disappeared, so no prosecution; although, the $650,000 was indeed spent, no one was held responsible for the disappearance, and no investigation was started, ongoing, or even done – other than a simplistic situation of noticing the money gone.

It is time – this government agency must be broken up, or must go away. America cannot afford this type of criminal behavior.


Posted by on January 23, 2015 in Uncategorized


The Death of America’s Wild Horses; Vision-To Save the Horses Not Destroy Them


Many Horse-people have a vision – To save America’s Wild Horse Herds from harm and even death. Then return them to America’s Public Lands – This is the Vision of the Majority of Americans. . .

Occam’s Razor – the theory explained simply: Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. The most useful statement of the principle for scientists as well as others is “. . . when you have two competing theories that make exactly the same predictions, the simpler one is the better.”

“. . .or in the only form that takes its own advice. . . “Keep things simple!”

The fact humans have a vision of something, often very significant to us all and within all of our lives, that vision should never be lost. But the universe has a push-n-pull complex of many things. These things also do this to many people’s vision. Perceptions are irrelevant here, as well as life background, education, or even life-style. As it is the vision that pushes folks forward, and often encompasses something much better, far superior than anything within their life. Expectations abound!

It is when a person’s vision lacks something, which reality or the very basis it is established upon may be false – a deviation from the simple, to so complex it becomes something of non-value. Large corporations, government agencies, and simply large groups have this restraint, a death-grip so to speak on an individual’s visions of what is – and promotes what cannot be. As within largeness or vastness an individual spirit, vision, and unique traits are ripped away; then replaced by the mundane, fitting in, following the group, and apathy soon follows, which by the way is all promoted and awarded. The vision, sadly, is lost in total.

It is at this point, for example, government agencies of today, or corporate structures involving many personnel, dislikes vision – dislikes unique and especially a personal vision of right compared to wrong. As a vision, it becomes simply an unworkable methodology. It is then, within this grasp of imitation of nothing, that minds are lost, decisions made upon narcissism or worse, greed.

Then to cover up errors, many more problems created, and exponentially and similar to compounding logarithmically (i.e. Einstein’s Theories of the expansion of the Universe), just as nature would have it, more problems abound. But nature is also designed for the ability to break things down to its simplest components, eventually to the core, or eventually to a single component that drives things forward. This can be positive — or it can be negative.

We can look for many resolutions, but it always comes down to the bare minimum, the simplest – Occam’s Razor. The fact is resolution very simple, and within the Wild Horse situation of today, very simple — government agencies and people are the problem, not the Wild Horses!

Simply take the Wild Horses out of holding, place them back onto Public Lands – Obey the laws that have been given to us over the past decades – whereas, sharing Public Lands and not destroying them remain the priority, and all is resolved.

One must ask, how did we all become so convoluted, so problematic, that now it is many horse advocates that are piling on and adding to the BLM and their already tremendous pile of created problems, has become reality. Within this realm, and beyond all else, the simplest and is and remains by far the most obvious right now in time — America’s Wild Horses face imminent Death! — John Cox – With A Vision-Saving Horses Not Hurting Them


Posted by on January 13, 2015 in Uncategorized


Wild Horses vs Government Lies and Welfare Ranchers: This is what American’s Subsidizes with Taxpayer Money


“I predict future happiness for Americans, if they can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people under the pretense of taking care of them.”
― Thomas Jefferson

Welfare ranchers, ranchers who graze on Public lands, want taxpayers and wild horses off public lands, but they want taxpayer subsidies to continue and even increase, which would provide even more widespread destruction of America’s Public Lands and the continued killing of America’s Icon, the Wild Horse Herds in the United States.

Society is becoming increasingly antagonistic toward private profit-making uses of public resources, especially when those private uses require taxpayer subsidies for operation. Most often what creates a higher use of subsidies (i.e. taxpayer money) are the apparent conflicts with other goals of ecological management. The antagonistic behavior is more than reasonable.

The fact is several things play into the subsidies welfare ranchers receive – and qualify because they have a Lease/Permit to graze on America’s Public Lands – and nothing more. Corporations are now taking advantage of this situation as well. Sacrifices exist, and America’s Icons, the Wild Horse Herds, pay the price for these questionable and often illegal behaviors from both welfare ranchers and corporations. As taxpayer’s, it‘s time we ask why this situation exists!

This brings me around to another important point. It is past time for legislators to reexamine resource programs such as mining, timber harvesting, and grazing on public lands. Taxpayers need to know, then acknowledge, DOI / BLM management of our Public Lands and their methodology as well as catering to special interests, consistently fail. The cost of this failure and to all taxpayer’s of America, in the Billions-of-dollars over and above what competent management ideologies would cost when done appropriately.

Grazing and the use of America’s Public Lands

Problems that emerge from government agencies profoundly bad, for both the environment and America:

(1) Public Lands (rangeland) quality continues to deteriorate despite over a century of federal effort to protect and rehabilitate public lands. This is mostly due to bad decisions based on manipulated or misinformation, and bad data (i.e. appropriate for political or special interest groups only) collected by DOI / BLM rangeland studies (cattle no longer in BLM or DOI research or data information collection scheme, yet generate most of the destruction as well as criminal situations on Public Lands).

(2) current stewardship of public rangelands is inconsistent with multiple use management and associated directly with environmental impacts, which flourish, and worse yet, paid for by American taxpayer dollars through subsidies to welfare ranchers (i.e. ranchers who qualify to graze their cattle on Public Lands) who continue to destroy America’s Public lands and the Wild Horse Herds;

(3) grazing fees do not reflect the full social costs of providing the forage, with BLM administrative costs in the millions of dollars alone, then the subsidies to welfare ranchers, amount to billions of dollars yearly – all American-taxpayer supported, with mostly hidden agendas from the taxpayers and the American general public; and

(4) current grazing on public lands, especially of cattle, then sheep, dominate public lands. Keep in mind it is not a legal cattle or sheep count that graze on Public Lands. Nor is it the amount considered by Congress or Federal Law, because little to no oversight on the correct amount of cattle or sheep per acre exists. American taxpayers pay the Wild Horse and Burro Board, one entity of a few boards, for recommendations toward proper management of cattle versus Wild Horses on Public Lands. But in truth it is not done and the Wild Horses, and the Horse Management Areas (i.e. HMA), remain neglected, and decisions are made for special interests only, welfare ranchers only, which amount to cattle and sheep population increase, and wild horse herd roundups increase, for wild horse herd populations to decrease. This equates also to more money collected from taxpayers, from these hidden agendas and hidden population counts of all cattle, sheep, and wild horses. By the way, there is no benefit given to the taxpayers here in America for any of these supposed programs, even though billions of dollars spent yearly to pay for them, hidden in the term subsidies.

Projection for Proper Public Land Management

In my opinion American taxpayer’s should call for a decrease of cattle and sheep that graze on Public Lands; then to grazing fee increases; then to discontinue pro-industry Bureau of Land Management (BLM) grazing advisory boards, and demand the use of grazing fee receipts to finance wildlife habitat and on-site monitoring of the welfare ranchers.

The problem that has existed for years is the fact these entities participating in these antiquated and non-useful programs, go about their business unchecked, unobserved, and abide by no law or regulatory check-n-balance system.

Although there is intense disagreement over the problems of grazing on public lands and the nature of potential remedies, there is an emerging consensus that the following broad set of precepts should guide modern Public Land Management.

• Management practices for public lands should guarantee Public Lands resources will be available in sufficient quantity and quality for future generations, and not just for publicity and something that sounds good to the public — but in reality, actually do so and monitor with a proper checks-n-balance system in-place to do so. This can also replace several Special Interest Oversight Boards that the BLM currently have in place — and in reality save the American taxpayers billions of dollars yearly if accomplished.

• Management practices should assure the sustained provision of non-consumptive multiple uses such as wildlife habitat, wilderness, and recreation. This involves the re-establishment of predators, of vegetation, and prominent ecosystem re-establishment and on Public Lands. Then re-establish as priority, America’s Iconic Wild Horse Herds; whereas, the prevailing herds allowed remaining, and the Wild Horses currently held captive, be placed back onto America’s Public Lands. This situation alone will save American taxpayer’s millions of dollars yearly as well – a natural resource plan established to recognize this entire situation as a vast reserve and wilderness area, with minimal management accomplished by an agency other than the current BLM, DOI, or Forestry – agencies which have shown their responsibility lack s in regard to dispersion of taxpayer money, criminality, and working for special interest groups — rather than America– or safeguarding taxpayer money as they should do but do not.

• The federal government ought to receive a fair return when public resources are used in private profit-making enterprises, and all should be transparent within a defined system of checks-n-balance systems. This is a paradox, as there does exist laws to accomplish this, but the current government agencies ignore, and even go as far as tell the general public these laws do not exist – and yet. . .

Public subsidy to ranchers

The controversy over grazing fees may be the most heated of existing arguments. Fees for public grazing are far below lease rates for comparable private grazing lands and, in many cases, below the government cost of providing the grazing service. Ranchers precariously argue that livestock production on federal rangeland is an economically important use of public resources, and that ranching on public lands would not be viable if grazing fees were set at market value.

Alternatively, some environmental groups want cattle and sheep off the land entirely, and increased fees would help that to happen. Moreover, there is widespread support for bringing the base (forage value) fee up to private market levels, which indeed would provide a fair return to the public-owners (taxpayers) and fair competition for ranchers who have no public land access.

But the problem with all of this is the fact, a fact which is an ongoing nightmare for welfare ranchers and legislators alike, who want to keep this program hidden from public perusal.

The Reality: welfare ranchers using Public Lands for cattle, for example, makes for lousy meat and their domestic receipt of beef sales (GAO Report) in 2012 / 2013 amount to less than 1% of over-all domestic sales of beef in America – worse, export sales of beef (also GAO Report) remains at 4% or below on a yearly basis, to such countries as China, Japan, etc.

Worse still, is the fact American taxpayers pay these welfare ranchers in the Billions-of-dollars yearly to raise this same non-competitive beef for export; note here that American taxpayers receive no benefit from the subsidies paid to welfare ranchers what so ever — as a matter of fact it was estimated that American taxpayers do pay an estimated cost of $389.00 per pound of beef sold to foreign entities.

One obvious suggestion does emerge, however. We should cease attempts to discover the “fair market value” of grazing on public lands for setting the optimal grazing fee, and focus our attention on more important and productive issues.

The fact that welfare ranching, a more true definition than not, is simply those who take advantage of antiquated and non-useful programs, and laws that provide loopholes at the same time is very real. Many of the public policies and laws that should have been retired decades ago still exist – so loopholes exist. But more than that, Agriculture and welfare ranching have strong lobby groups as well as pose threats and corrosion to legislators and the general public alike. Frankly, and in reality, the use of Public Lands for grazing is nothing more than a scam, as it is not justified with legitimate information or even legitimate market references. The Public Lands meat is poor quality most often, and very much unuseful. And yet we are led to believe America needs this situation – and those that know simply look on in disbelief.

Land stewardship

Poor stewardship of the public lands intended for multiple use is a highly significant problem. Past policy has focused, without much success, mostly on the sustainability of grazing on public lands and gave little attention to the long term viability of other uses. Unfortunately, there is not universal agreement on what constitutes acceptable grazing management in the multiple use setting of public lands. But a new focus on ecosystem management, brought on by endangered species and other environmental problems, as well as an overabundance of cattle and sheep on Public Lands, should help shape future grazing policy – But again it is questionable, as we look at heavy special interest groups and their lobby efforts, basically costing the American public billions upon billions of dollars yearly in these ineffective, antiquated, and not efficient programs.


I propose the broad outlines of a new grazing policy designed to satisfy three basic criteria: professional acceptability, long-run applicability, and public/political support. Public lands are managed for the long term multiple objectives of society employing the best possible scientific evidence and economic practice.

Thereby, livestock grazing is viewed as an acceptable public land use only if the value of grazing exceeds the costs of managing the grazing activity and protecting other public values in the land. The best way to assure this socially efficient condition is to set grazing fees equal to the imposed costs.

Long run applicability is promoted by designing the fee structure to be predictable but sufficiently flexible to satisfy multiple use needs in the face of changing bioeconomic circumstances.

A checks-n-balance system also required to develop transparency as well as keeping the Fox out of the chicken coop, so to speak – in another words keeping the welfare ranchers and government employees responsible and honest.

Public/political support is generated by ensuring that the fees collected cover the full costs of grazing administration while maintaining other public values. Ranchers would not be subsidized either directly, through budget outlays for BLM or USFS grazing programs, or indirectly, through losses of valued natural resources and environmental qualities. In other words the subsidies programs, all, should be discontinued immediately, and water rights and wells, where Permitees/Leasers had somehow received ownership and water rights (i.e. even though on Public Lands) be placed back into Public Lands ownership and responsibility.

American’s want their Public Lands back! American’s also want it managed responsibly, not criminally or irresponsibly! And that is the American Way!


Beckage, B. et al. “A rapid upward shift of a forest ecotone during 40 years of warming in the Green Mountains of Vermont.” PNAS 105 (2008): 4197-4202.

Forrest, J et al. “Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: Does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?” Ecology 91 (2010): 431-440.

Inouye, DW. “Effects of Climate Change on Phenology, Frost Damage, and Floral Abundance of Montane Wildflowers.” Ecology 89 (2008): 353-362.

Lambrecht, SC et al. “Reproductive and physiological responses to simulated climate warming for four subalpine species.” New Phytologist 173 (2007): 121-134.

MacDonald, GM. Biogeography: Space, Time and Life. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2003.

Martin, M et al. “Reduced early growing season freezing resistance in alpine treeline plants under elevated atmospheric CO2.” Global Change Biology 16 (2009): 1057-1070.

McVicar, TR. “Observational evidence from two mountainous regions that near-surface wind speeds are declining more rapidly at higher elevations than lower elevations: 1960-2006.” Geophysical Research Letters 37 (2010): L06402.

Millar, CI et al. “Response of Subalpine Conifers in the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., to 20th-Century Warming and Decadal Climate Variability.” Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 36 (2004): 181-200.

Miller, Eric and Halpern, Charles. ” Effects of environment and grazing disturbance on tree establishment in meadows of the central Cascade Range, Oregon, USA.” Journal of Vegetation Science 9: 265-282, 1998.

Peterson, DW and Peterson, DL. “Mountain Hemlock Growth Responds to Climatic Variability at Annual and Decadal Time Scales.” Ecology 82 (2001): 3330-3345.

Powell, S and Hansen, A. “Conifer Cover Increase in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Frequency, Rates, and Spatial Variation.” Ecosystems 10 (2007): 204-216.

Wipf, S et al. “Winter climate change in alpine tundra: plant responses to change in snow depth and snowmelt timing.” Climatic Change 94 (2010): 105-121.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (USDNUSDI). GrazingJee review and evaluation update of the 1986 final report .. A report from the Secretaries of Agriculture and Interior. Washington, D.C, 1992. NRDC v. Hodel, No. Civ. S-84-616 RAR(E.D. Cal. Sep. 3, 1985).

Wilkinson, C F. “Crossing the Next Meridian: Land, Water, and the Future of the West.” Washingron D.C: Island Press, 1992.

Loosening of the soil surface during drying periods (Davies 1938, Campbell 1966, Savory 1978).

Removal of excess vegetation that may negatively affect net carbohydrate fixation and increase water transpiration losses (Daubenmire and Colwell 1942, May 1960, Baker and Hunt 1961, Williams 1966, Gifford and Marshall 1973, Thorn and Koller 1974).

Incorporating mulch into the soil profile which speeds development of humus (Dyksterhuis and Schmutz 1947).

Recycling nutrients in the ecosystem and making some nutrients more available (Petersen et al. 1956, Williams 1964, Lotero et al. 1966, Barrow 1967, Weeda 1967).

Maintaining optimal leaf area index (May 1960, Jameson 1963b, Williams 1966, Brown and Blaser 1968, Ludlow and Wilson 197 1, Vickery et al. 1971, Langer 1972, Robson 1973).

Trampling seed into the ground (Davies 1938, Tanganyika Agricultural Corporation 1961).

Increased in the last 60 years (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology 1974, Wildlife Management Institute Staff 1978).

Some of this increase can be attributed to controlled grazing and range improvement projects which have resulted in the landscape supporting many stages of ecosystem development (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology 1974, Wolfe 1978).

Reducing excess accumulations of standing dead vegetation and mulch that may chemically and physically inhibit new growth (Hopkins et al. 1948, Curtis and Partch 1950, Goodman 1953, Conrad 1954, Hopkins 1954, Hopkins 1956, Glendening and Pase 1964, Young and Hulett 1968).

Inoculating plant parts with saliva, which may stimulate plant regrowth (Vittoria and Rendina 1960, Reardon et al. 1974).

Reducing fire, insect, and rodent problems resulting from vegetation accumulation (Launchbaugh 1964, Smith and Doe11 1968, Todd and Kamm 1974).


Posted by on January 9, 2015 in Uncategorized