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America’s Indigenous Wild Horse’s: Good Science Will Save Them

27 Jun

chumash horse pre-dating mexico and spainish horses by 2 centuries

History is a cyclic poem written by Time upon the memories of man. ~ Percy Bysshe Shelley

In this article we develop a consensus toward establishing Wild Horses’ as indigenous in America. The truth is that science and good investigative research gives us this factual, and often overlooked information already. Oddly, it is developed from attritional information at archeological dig-sites. It is found within research papers and technical reports, in this case, from woolly mammoth dig-sites up and down the Pacific Coast and somewhat inland.
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“However, not all mammoths were woolly tundra-dwellers; in North America, mammoth remains have been found at elevations ranging from sea level to the mountains of the Colorado Plateau, and from Canada to central Mexico. The largest of these, the Columbian mammoth, dwelled in savannas and grasslands like African elephants today, and the smallest—Pygmy Mammoths—lived on the isolated Channel Islands off the California coast.” Gill, Jacquelyn, Scientific America
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Found commonly at these archeological dig-sites are wild horse bones, and found in abundance and in accord with many technical reports on this subject matter (inclusive). This is due in part to their similar eating and grazing habits during those times. The problem is the woolly mammoth story is much more interesting and publishable, especially within the pecking-order world of research and archeological discoveries; therefore, the highlights are directly on the woolly mammoth, wild horse bones overlooked in total.

The positive attribute here is the fact we can easily place time-factors on horse bones found at many dig-sites of other mammals as well – and within the documentation of the attritional artifacts. So we can develop an even more accurate time line, by going from one extinct animal to another, then find more information when carbon-dating bones of currently existent animals, with the overlooked horse bones beside them.

Not just animal dig-sites but archeological digs of ancient buildings or townships become of interest to us for the same goal. And as above, these factors when combined, establish a definite wild horse presence in America throughout history, and the more interesting aspect, continuously.

A Walk into the Past

There exist variables, through reasonable explanation, essential evidence to the indigenous nature of wild horses in America. Unfortunately, many articles involved in explaining wild horse history, especially time-line factors, simply repeat the narrow scope of rhetoric presumed as the only historical facts available.

Often these articles attest to research, but indeed are not researched what so ever, simply plagiarized material, and as a safety-net for many writers would have it – repeated information only. Most writer’s simply repeat the somewhat snobbish appeal of the European influence on Archeological finds, specifically about horses, existing nowhere else on our planet but within their European landscape – which, according to them, provided the availability of the wild horse in the America’s (i.e. other rhetorical reasons exist as well, but not mentioned here).

But what we find when perusing scientific research, the facts become overwhelming — evidence that directly opposes the European-only origination of the wild horse. These facts, by this writer’s perspective, creates many questions left unanswered to this day, regarding the matter of the real history of the wild horse and its indigenous nature on the American Continent (this article does not delve into American Indian petroglyphs, carvings, etc…).

Something not to be overlooked, ever — When there become more questions than available answers, that tells us, definably, there exists many things that have been overlooked or neglected within the specific subject and reference materials.

So we can explore such animals as the woolly mammoths, which lived in opened grassland biomes similar to the horse. Bones of wild horses also found within many archeological sites and right beside the woolly mammoth.

Not so ironic the above facts remain a controversy to this day. And yet the controversy not of the horse bones, rather it surrounds the fact of extinction of the woolly mammoth – ironically, no one mentions how the horse survived on this continent for centuries, even though horse bones appear at so many archeological dig-sites, abundantly so – remains one of many more questionable aspect of archeology and subjects to be debated within the science community in the future.

The Question Is?

Yes, controversy in regard to archeological digs, theories, and subject matter are not headline news. So when we see an article, in this case on wild horses and their indigenous nature questioned or stated firmly non-existent, but does not mention the controversy within the science community on the subject (e.g. many archeologist’ believe the indigenous nature of wild horses does exist quite readily in America), then we can assume a grave error committed in fact-collection and research – simply by “things overlooked in their research on the subject” – and then we, as the general public, become victims once again, of incompetence and misleading information.

As outlined within this article, “Wooly mammoth mass accumulation next to the Paleolithic Yana RHS site, Arctic Siberia: its geology, age, and relation to past human activity — Abstract — In 2001, the Yana RHS archaeological site was discovered in the lower Yana river valley, Arctic Siberia. Its radiocarbon age is about 28 000 BP. While enormous amount of Pleistocene mammal bones was excavated from the site, the mammoth bones occurred at an unexpectedly low frequency . . . That was interpreted as an indication of the limited role of mammoths in the subsistence economy of the Pleistocene Yana people. In 2008, next to the excavation local ivory miners opened a mass accumulation of mammoth accompanied by the artifacts. About one thousand mammoth bones from at least 26 individuals, and few wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, reindeer, and bear bones have been unearthed there. Stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide evidence for cultural layer of Yana RHS and the mass accumulation of mammoth to be coeval.”

The truism often overlooked, that at these sites where they discover woolly mammoth bones, they also find horse bones, as stated by many archeologist’s, almost always . . . note how it was simply glossed-over as an insignificant yet attritional development that substantiates the woolly mammoth presence, and the other animals simply incremental details.

This occasion is consistent among many scientific and technical reports and journals. Many times the horse bones, as well as other animal bones and as mentioned previously, are in truth set aside information, although mentioned in the report on the mammoth; and just as often only mentioned in reference of proximity only – this, ironically, often overlooked by those who research the history of the horse, and disregard the timeline that the situation can and does establish, and very well I might add.

But this also establishes the fact of horses coming over the Land Bridge into the America’s, way back when. Then we go to the West Coast of the America’s, the Channel Islands off of the California Coast, and we find further information associated with woolly mammoth digs.

In the West we find bones of the pygmy woolly mammoth – “Summarizing the available radiocarbon chronology of the Channel Island Mammoths, it appears they have been on the islands, in pygmy form, essentially unchanged, for more than 47,000 years (beyond the limits of radiocarbon chronology). It also appears that they may have survived until the early Holocene colonization of the islands by the ancestors of the ancient Chumash people, first recorded between 10,800 and 11,300 years ago,” (i.e. Channel Islands (USA) pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) compared and contrasted with M. columbi, their continental ancestral stock).

The Woolly Mammoth and the Wild Horse

Whether the general mammoth population died out for climatic reasons or due to overhunting by humans is controversial (controversy discussed in “DNA Shifts Timeline For Mammoths’ Exit” and other science reports).

The fact is the wild horse and the mammoth had similar appetites’, grasses, et al. . . A small population survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 3750 BC, and the small mammoths of Wrangle Island survived until 1650 BC. Recent research of sediments in Alaska indicates wooly mammoths (i.e. wild horse bones found there as well) survived on the American mainland, but the dates remain controversial – the fact wild horse bones found at these sites simply ignored, as once again the abrupt arrogance of subject matter, more plausible and certain to be published in science journals when highlighting the wooly mammoth rather than the wild horse bones . . .

“Causes of late Quaternary extinctions of large mammals (“megafauna”) continue to be debated, especially for continental losses, because spatial and temporal patterns of extinction are poorly known. Accurate latest appearance dates (LADs) for such taxa are critical for interpreting the process of extinction. The extinction of woolly mammoth and horse in northwestern North America is currently placed at 15,000–13,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), based on LADs from dating surveys of macrofossils (bones and teeth). . . “ (i.e. “Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska” ).”

Conclusion or The Beginning

So once again the definitive-history is not that at all, but remains controversial. Perhaps the point of this article, when perusing these facts as well, and on your own, you will find several “theories” in regard to the history of the wild horse.

“Theory” remains the key word here, because within the science community, new discoveries and better methodology in establishing time-frames and establishing historical elements of our past develop new perspectives of our past quite often. Only then are new theories developed, then perhaps accepted or not. . . what an odd way to develop history . . .

The history of America’s wild horses’ fall quite nicely within this categorical demise of the old rhetoric, in order to replace the misinformation with the not so much new information at all — but with perseverance to actually study the overall consistent information that already exists within technical and archeological reports, but oh so often overlooked – after all, nobody wants to make waves within our society of today – OR DO WE? It’s past time to do so!

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REFERENCES

Agenbroad, L.D. 1994. Taxonomy of North American Mammuthus columbi and biometrics of the Hot Springs mammoths. In Agenbroad, L. D. and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site: a decade of field and laboratory research in paleontology, geology, and paleontology: 158-207. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota, Inc. Hot Springs.

Agenbroad, L.D. 1998. New pygmy mammoth (Mammuthus exilis) localities and radiocarbon dates from San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz Islands, California. In Weigand, P. (ed.), Contributions to the geology of the Northern Channel Islands, Southern California: 169-175. Bakersfield: Pacific Section of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Agenbroad, L.D., Morris, D. & Roth., V.L. 1999. Pygmy mammoths (M. exilis) from Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. In Haynes, G., J. Klimowicz and W.F. Reumer (eds.), Mammoths and the Mammoth Fauna: studies of an extinct ecosystem. Proceedings of the First International Mammoth Conference. Deinsea 6: 89-102. St. Petersburg, Russia.

Arslanov, K., Cook, G.T. , Gulliksen, S., Harkness, D.D., Kankainen, T., Scott, E.M., Vartanyan, S., and Zaitseva, G.I. (1998). “Consensus Dating of Remains from Wrangel Island”. Radiocarbon 40 (1): 289–294. Retrieved 2012-03-07.

Vartanyan, S.L.; Kh. A. Arslanov; T. V. Tertychnaya; S. B. Chernov (1995). “Radiocarbon Dating Evidence for Mammoths on Wrangel Island, Arctic Ocean, until 2000 BC”. Radiocarbon (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona) 37 (1): pp 1–6. Retrieved 2008-01-10.

Cushing, J.E., Wenner, A.M., Noble, E. & Daly, M. 1986. A groundwater hypothesis for the origin of ‘fire areas’ on the Northern Channel Islands, California. Quaternary Research 26: 207-217.

Haile J, Froese DG, Macphee RD, et al. (December 2009). “Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (52): 22352–7. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10622352H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912510106. PMC 2795395. PMID 20018740. Retrieved 2012-03-07.

Foster, J.B. 1964. Evolution of mammals on islands. Nature 202: 234-235. Mol, D. 1995. Over dwergolifanten endwergmammoeten. Cranium 12: 38-40. Orr, P. 1956. Dwarf mammoths and man on Santa Rosa Island. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 26: 75-81.

Fountain, Henry (22 December 2009). “DNA Shifts Timeline For Mammoths’ Exit”. The New York Times. p. 3. Retrieved 8 August 2010.

Orr, P. 1968. Prehistory of Santa Rosa Island. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.
Roth, V.L. 1982. Dwarf mammoth from the Santa Barbara, California Channel Islands: size, shape, development, and evolution. Ph.D. dissertation. New Haven:Yale University.

Roth, V.L. 1996. Pleistocene dwarf elephants from the California Islands. In Shoshani, J. H. and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: 249-253. Oxford: University of Oxford Press.

Sondaar, P.Y. 1977. Insularity and its effect on mammal evolution. In Hecht, M.K., P.C. Goody and B.M. Hecht (eds.), Major patterns in vertebrate evolution. NATO Advanced Studies Institute Series 14: 671-707. Stearns, R.E.C. 1973. (brief note) Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 152.

Stock, C. & Furlong, E.L. 1928. The Pleistocene elephants of Santa Rosa Island, California. Science LXVIII: 140-141.

Tikhonov, A. 1997. (brief note) Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. Department of History of Fauna. Euromam Newsletter 4: 14-15. Wenner, A.M., Cushing, J., Noble, E. & Daly, M. 1991.
Mammoth radiocarbon dates from the northern Channel Islands, California. Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 4: 1-6.

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1 Comment

Posted by on June 27, 2014 in Uncategorized

 

One response to “America’s Indigenous Wild Horse’s: Good Science Will Save Them

  1. grandmagregg

    June 27, 2014 at 5:09 pm

     

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