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WILD HORSE EXTINCTION

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“Nevertheless so profound is our ignorance, and so high our presumption, that we marvel when we hear of the extinction of an organic being; and as we do not see the cause, we invoke cataclysms to desolate the world, or invent laws on the duration of the forms of life!” — Charles Darwin

Although wildlife extinction is a normal part of evolution, human modifications to the planet in the last few centuries, and perhaps even millennia, have greatly accelerated the rate at which extinctions occur

Habitat loss remains the main driver of extinct species, but it may act synergistically (i.e. reproduction-reduction – PZP use for example or hunting under falsified habitat population information) with other drivers such as over harvesting and pollution of habitats, and what is currently ongoing — climate change.

Large-bodied species such as Wild Horses, rare species, and habitat specialists (unique biosphere living) are particularly prone to extinction as a result of rapid human modifications of the planet. Extinctions can disrupt vital ecological processes such as pollination and seed dispersal, leading to cascading losses, ecosystem collapse, and a higher wildlife extinction rate overall.

SYSTEMATIC DRIVERS

Agreement that wildlife extinction rates have increased over the past few decades is quite common, and undisputable facts exist. Wildlife extinction is from adverse accelerated habitat; profound wildlife breeding control and reduction methods (for example with PZP, the methodology more popular than being useful, and in reality has no significance other than leading to ultimate extinction); and, global expansion of the human population during the twentieth century.

The major ‘‘systematic drivers’’ of modern species loss are:

  1. Changes in land use (habitat loss combined with degradation and fragmentation);
  2. Overexploitation such as cattle and sheep on Public Lands which are invasive species;
  3. Disease from both invasive species and non-invasive or biosphere and habitat fluctuation creating abnormal virus or germs;
  4. Unorthodox breed-control and minimizing reproductive rates exclusively i.e. America’s Wild Horses on Public Lands (i.e. PZP, et al.);
  5. Inherent inner-structural damage of family bands and herds due to interruption;
  6. Climate change  (global  warming)  connected to increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide and increases in nitrogen deposition;
  7. over-hunting, introduced predators or lack of predators;
  8. diseases, and blatant habitat destruction both human-made and invasive species introduced negligently . . .
  9. BLM erroneous horse counts contributes to “closure rates”, as it is estimated that, e.g., cattle and sheep on Public Lands outnumber the wild horses – 10.6 : 1 ratio, and after discussion find it to be the minimum average, a much higher average, according to scientific estimation and a ratio more in-line with cattle and sheep populations on America’s Public Lands is 38.4 to 1 ratio.

A key-element here:  Ultimately, any phenomena that can cause mortality rates to exceed reproductive-replacement, over a sustained period, cause species extinction.

 EXTINCTION DRIVERS

Some events instantly eliminate all individuals of a particular species, such as an asteroid strike, a massive volcanic eruption, or even a rapid loss of large areas of unique and critical habitat because of deforestation, or invasive species which leads to the actual destruction of habitat, then to species.  Many examples, here are two:

  1. The Rocky Mountain Sheep placed on Mount St. Helen’s months before the mountain erupted, a good example of this area-extinction development.
  1. The introduction in 1996 of PZP within the Wild Horse population on Public Lands, then redefined, upon past use – then used currently to lead the way for Wild Horse population extinction, and promoted under false pretense and use . . .

In reality, many forces contribute toward habitat loss which leads to extinction, in the Wild Horse case — a build up of cattle and sheep on Public Lands, with extreme ratios of cattle and sheep compared to horse population.  This will cause extinction of the wild horse directly, for several reasons. Then we compound the situation with reproductive reduction in breed-controls . . . or what is termed Reduction to Extinction.

In our case scenario here, the BLM not only removes many of America’s Wild Horses, but plans have been discovered, over time, that the BLM, along with the Department of the Interior and the Wild Horse and Burro Board are all, along with many of what is termed Welfare Ranchers and miscellaneous corporations — will be responsible for the absolute extinction of America’s Wild Horses off of America’s Public Lands – despite what American’s want.

The BLM, along with their contractors and special interest groups, manipulate material and data favorable only to these special interest groups. They communicate to the public with lies and innuendo; which, equates to misinformation to the public.

This, in reality, is to promote the liquidation via reproductive-reduction of Wild Horses the extinction process, rather than a population-control process, as promoted, toward longevity of wild horses — which is the outright lie . . . as well as a tremendous amount of taxpayer money spent for such criminal behaviors and conduct – Creating fraudulent budgets based on lies and misinformation is illegal after all . . . and many question why this criminal behavior is ignored. . .

In summation:  BLM and DOI, via Special Interests at taxpayer expense, facilitate the establishment of an invasive  species (cattle and sheep) by using a registered Pesticide (PZP) — given to Wild Horses under the status of “Pest” – and this registered Pesticide agent is used for Reproduction Reduction Process = Extinction, and is also an agent of questionable use and very questionable history due to lack of any quality research methodology.

As a result, any one of these process agents can and does cause a population to dwindle. Ultimately to predispose this same population, in this case America’s Wild Horses, to a zeroed-out population = EXTINCTION!

POPULATION DECLINES

Irrespective of the reason for a population’s decline from a large to small population size, there often are unusual and detrimental events, causation from low horse population, for example.  Good science combined with quality data gathering and information, and sound translation from that data show us the reasoning for low wild horse herd size:

  1. Due to invasive species i.e. cattle and sheep;
  2. Continuous reduction in horse herd and horse band size due to roundups, bait and trap site roundups;
  3. Stealing or commingled theft (by contractors and government employees et al) of wild horses and taking them directly to slaughter;
  4. As well, the heavy false promotion and awkward at best use of the Registered Pesticide PZP for direct Reproductive Birth-Rate Reduction in the wild horse herd populations over all.

(PZP – A Wildlife Breeding-Control Agent is a pesticide which many try to call a Vaccine in order to persuade others it is okay to use on Wild Horses on Public Lands. with the outright and obvious intent of making it sound harmless;

This term seriously erroneous and PZP is a Registered Pesticide with the EPA, and as an EPA agent stated clearly, “. . . PZP is not a vaccine, as it fulfills no terminology or process elements to qualify . . .”

Promotion toward a mere and wholesome population-control of Wild Horses is misinformation at best — PZP is inconsistent and leads to extinction . . .

*The fact is PZP reduces reproductive rates in America’s Wild Horses – and as good science tells us, creates a decrease in Wild Horse population by lower reproductive-rates in many mammals.

**The fact is PZP speeds-up what is termed a “closure-rate.” When using good science and good research derived from a thorough data base, this equates to Extinction of America’s Wild Horses – Beyond any doubt!

Allee Effect

Although competition among individuals is reduced at low densities and can induce a population rebound, a counter-phenomenon known as the ‘‘Allee effect’’ can also act to draw populations more so toward extinction by (for instance) disrupting behavioral patterns, which depend on numbers (e.g., herd defense against predators; genetics and available learned characteristics, for example to establish firm survival skills from aged horses, et al.); or by genetic threats such as inbreeding depression.

Small populations, where most of the wild horse herds are at currently – very low non-viable or near non-viable numbers per herd/band, if dominated by chance events combined with the Allee effects, are often considered to have dipped below their ‘‘minimum viable population’’ size.

Thereby, debate toward compensatory effect, or the Allee effects due to small herd size no longer is a viable deduction what so ever – due to so many other infringement processes conducted on the wild horses while on their designated lands by Law; also, due to the inconsistent Registered Pesticide PZP throughout its history.

But many researchers and others surmise its use, and believe the inconsistent results were known, and to the effect toward a quasi misinformation campaign to promote the Registered Pesticide as a useful anti-reproductive process for the control of wild horses – or in truth of the matter the process to extinction of America’s wild horses . . .

Yes, the truth is nothing more than a known lie by those who wanted the wild horses destroyed completely in the name of being a nuisance or pest, and with no redeemable characteristics what so ever – this equates to judgments based on unsubstantiated data, which equates to hatred toward wild horses – your tax money being used under false pretense by government agencies catering to special interests!

Thus, once a major population  decline  has  occurred  (from  habitat  loss, overexploitation, or in response to many other possible stressors), an ‘‘extinction vortex’’  of  positive  feedback loops can doom species to extinction, even if the original  threats  have  been  alleviated. Further, many species may take decades to perish following habitat degradation, but with so many stressors the wild horse herds confronted with and attacks on them now weekly, and their low numbers, extinction is eminent.

Although some species may withstand the initial shock of land clearing, factors such as the lack of food resources, breeding sites, et al that disappear, makes populations unviable, and they eventually succumb to extinction as well. This phenomenon evokes the concept of ‘‘living-dead’’ species, or those ‘‘committed to extinction.’’

Categorically right now the America’s Wild Horses are, by many government agencies, supporting as a priority the “Living Dead” paradigm – as seen by the ignoring of public response and completing the tasks of the Stressors outlined above, undaunted. . .

The eventual loss of such species, as wild horses on Public Lands  is referred  to as the ‘‘extinction  debt’’  caused  by  past habitat  loss.  For example, even if net rates can be reduced or even halted, the extinction debt of remnant and secondary lands patches will see the extinction of countless remaining species over this interval.  We can now speak more about the attrition situation, other than the wild horse dilemma, and acknowledge our government’s attempts at ridding America’s entire Public Lands of many more animals, or even a priority toward all wildlife . . .

EXTINCTION VULNERABILITY SCIENCE

 Certain  life-history along with behavioral,  morphological,  and physiological characteristics appear to make some species  more  susceptible  than others to the  extinction drivers described above. In general, large-sized species with a restricted distribution that demonstrate habitat specialization tend to be at greater risk of extinction from human’s, more so than other stressor’s within their respective Taxa, especially to processes such as rapid habitat loss combined with reproduction .

Because of their high habitat specificity and/or low population densities, rare species may be more prone to extinction than common species. The size of a species’ range is  also  a  major  determinant of its extinction proneness. Small ranges may make species more vulnerable to stochastic perturbations, even if local abundance is high; for example, proportionally more passerines (perching birds) with relatively small geographic ranges.

Such trends are worrisome because those species with shrinking ranges as a result of adverse human activities become particularly vulnerable to other drivers, such as climate change. Habitat loss also reduces the patch sizes necessary for species requiring large home ranges, making them vulnerable to extinction from a loss of sub-population contentedness, reduced dispersal capacity, and the ensuing lower population viability.

Larger-bodied vertebrates are considered to be more extinction-prone than smaller bodied ones when the threatening process unfolds rapidly or intensely. Indeed, threatened mammals are an order of magnitude heavier than non-threatened ones.  A common explanation for this trend is that body size is inversely correlated with population size, making large-bodied animals less abundant and more vulnerable to chronic Environmental perturbations (while being buffered against short-term environmental fluctuations).

The extinction proneness of large-bodied animals to human activities is further enhanced because of other correlated traits, such as their requirement of large area, retarded food intake, high habitat specificity, and lower reproductive rate.

CONCLUSIONS

Beyond a doubt, all of the above lead America’s Wild Horses to Extinction.  And the government employees, contractors, and Registered Pesticide PZP promoters are guilty also . . . despite their ongoing misinformation to the public and taxpayer’s alike.

Those who debate these facts, such as those who make their living accepting grants or government contracts and adhere to what they call acceptable practice, while using the Registered Pesticide PZP on the Wild Horses, also have as much vented interest as do welfare ranchers, BLM, DOI, and corporations who make money off the occasion and off of America’s Public Lands.

The bottom line is they are being subsidized via antiquated laws while doing so, lying and distributing misinformation to the public. The best example is the overly estimated Wild Horse populations on America’s Public Lands and given to the public by BLM . . .

Many questions need to be answered, especially from the BLM, the DOI, and the WH&B Board themselves. These organizations hide the truth, or simply give the public outright misinformation and often lie. The extinction juxtaposition of much of American wildlife, directly involving significant links, for example wolves, cougars, and other predators that provide reforestation and environmental enhancements simply by their inhabiting a particular area, are much less active right now, and nearing extinction as well.  This is becoming more noticeable within our environmental crisis as well, and for many reasons.

But there is one more note of interest to be developed here, that is of expense – how much has the taxpayer paid in order to pave the way in making Wild Horses Extinct – and why, when they can get along well enough on Public Lands, without any problems at all due to the sheer number of land-size compared to wild horse herd size – other than those made up problems and by 100% of those who profit vastly on Taxpayer money, in the billions now yearly, and the Taxpayer receives = 0 (that is Zero Folks) Nothing!

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Glossary of Unique Terms American’s and Taxpayers Should Know:

 Allee  effects. These  factors  cause  a  reduction  in  the growth  rate  of  small  populations  as  they  decline  (e.g., via reduced survival or reproductive success).coextinction. Extinction of one species triggers the loss of another species.

extinction debt. This refers to the extinction of species or populations long after habitat alteration. extinction vortex. As populations decline, an insidious mutual reinforcement  occurs  among  biotic and abiotic processes driving population size downward to extinction.

extirpation. This refers to extinction of a population rather than of an entire species.

invasive  species.  These are nonindigenous species introduced to areas outside of their natural range that have become established and have spread.

megafauna. This refers to large-bodied (>44 kg) animals, commonly (but not exclusively) used to refer to the large mammal biota of the Pleistocene.

minimum  viable  population. This is the number of individuals in a population required to have a specified probability of persistence over a given period of time.

*** Ironically, and with the use of up to millions of dollars of taxpayer money over the years, the Wild Horse and Burro Board was developed by a congressionally voted upon (unanimously at that time) Law, to safeguard America’s Wild Horses.

*** Ironically again, this WH&B Board (i.e. contrary directly to Law) indeed does not and has not for quite some time protected the Wild Horses on Public Lands what so ever.

***A perusal of the WH&B Act Law and the WH&B Board decisions (Board Meeting Documents over the years) demonstrate this to be a fact, and in accord with the Bureau of Land Management and the Department of the Interior’s blessing, have indeed spent millions in taxpayer money illegally, as well as violated consistently the Wild Horse and Burro Act – also a unanimously and Congressionally voted upon Law which demonstrated the will of the majority of the American people when done . . .

*** So what started out to be a safeguard for America’s Wild Horses, was corrupted decades ago, and was infiltrated with people from the areas the Wild Horses and Public Lands in question were to be protected “From”!  PROBLEM!

*** Ultimately, and well referenced, the WH&B Board decisions based upon getting rid of, or classified as on the road to Extinction, and via a loosely configured time element, all of America’s Wild Horses taken off of America’s Public Lands – Preferred Methodology = EXTINCTION – conducted with Invasive Species X Reproduction Breed-Control (i.e. PZP-Registered Pesticide)!  THE SCAM!

References:

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Clavero, Miguel, and Emili Garcia-Berthou. 2005. Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 110.

Dirzo,  Rudolfo,  and  Peter J.  Raven.  2003.  Global  state  of biodiversity and loss. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28: 137–167.

Fagan, William F., and E. E. Holmes. 2006. Quantifying the extinction vortex. Ecology Letters 9: 51–60.

Koh,  Lian  P.,  Robert  R.  Dunn,  Navjot  S.  Sodhi,  Robert K. Colwell,  Heather  C. Procter,  and  Vince  S.  Smith. 2004.  Species  co-extinctions  and  the  biodiversity crisis.  Science 305: 1632–1634.

Pimm,  Stuart  L.,  and  Peter  Raven.  2000.  Extinction  by numbers. Nature 403: 843–845.

Pounds,  J.  Alan,  Martin  R.  Bustamante,  Luis  A.  Coloma,

Jamie A. Consuegra, Michael P. L. Fogden, Pru N. Foster, Enrique  La  Marca,  Karen  L.  Masters,  Andres  MerinoViteri, Robert Puschendorf, Santiago R. Ron, G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa,  Christopher  J.  Still,  and  Bruce  E. Young.  2006.  Widespread  amphibian  extinctions  from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439:161–167.

Ricketts, Taylor H., Gretchen C. Daily, Paul R. Ehrlich, and C. D. Michener. 2004. Economic value of tropical forest to coffee production. Proceedings of the National Academy  of  Sciences  U.S.A.  34:  12579–12582.

Rosser,  Alison  M.,  and  Sue  A.  Manika.  2002.  Overexploitation  and species  extinctions.  Conservation  Biology  16:  584–586.

Sekercioglu, Cagan H., Gretchen C. Daily, and Paul R. Ehrlich.  2004.  Ecosystem  consequences  of  bird  declines.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A.  101: 18042–18047.

 
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Posted by on June 29, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

America’s Wild Horses — On the Road To Extinction

6648599037_915af2c4a2_z   “They are all beasts of burden in a sense, ‘ Thoreau once remarked of animals, ‘made to carry some portion of our thoughts.’ Animals are the old language of the imagination; one of the ten thousand tragedies of their disappearance would be a silencing of this speech.”   

How large will be the loss of America’s Wild Horses on America’s Public Lands? Over what time period might that loss unfold? Habitat destruction and breed control is the leading cause of species extinction, and here we can actually see cattle, a distinct overabundance, being the problem on Public lands; which, leads to not only environmental destruction, but wildlife and in particular wild horse extinction!

Generally, many of the species found across large areas of a given habitat are represented, most often anyway, within smaller areas. So we can consider habitat loss initially causes few-extinctions. Then we go to cattle . . . then discover there are so many that the last remnants of Public Lands habitat are essentially being destroyed. Thus, at current rates of habitat destruction, the common belief is the peak of extinctions should not occur for decades – Unfortunately, what does exist is an uneven, highly clumped, distribution of vulnerable species over America’s public land surface. Within these ‘biodiversity hotspots (HMA’s in the matter of this discussion), habitats are already disproportionately reduced.

Wild Horses are in danger of becoming extinct!

Conservatively, there are about seven million species of animals — a definition encompassing most organisms that would be generally recognized as plants or animals but excluding bacteria, for instance — about 85% are terrestrial – wild horses such a small percentage, yet blamed for so much “occurrence” on Public Lands – outright lies actually, to defend the over abundance of cattle and other grazing livestock on Public Lands.

Humanity is rapidly destroying habitats that are most species-rich.

To convert habitat loss to species loss, the principles of island ecology (HMA’s being an island for example within this paradigm of explanation) are applied to the terrestrial ‘islands’ that remain in a ‘sea’ of converted land. The relationship between number of species and island area is nonlinear, and from this one can predict how many species should become extinct as the size of the islands shrinks. These doomed species do not disappear immediately, however.

How does one go about calculating the rate of species extinctions from habitat fragments? There have been only a few such estimates, but projections based on a species survivorship curve with a half-life of roughly 50 years, which seems reasonable. Combining the rate of habitat loss, the species-to-area relationship and the survivorship curve gives us a crude extinction curve. From this, we would expect that current extinction rates should be modest — on the order of a thousand species per decade, per million species – but the human-induced, for example here PZP and other breeding controls upon a deficient genetics availability, and special interests toward public lands given a priority . . . Note: Also due to roundups, taking to slaughter mostly stallions, mares disappearing from government corrals in total, and the use of a pesticide PZP which interrupts dynamic herd life and creates misaligned survivorship attributes and family / band disharmony – yes, destruction of the herd dynamics in total —

. . . i.e. many horse bands and herds, the extinction percentage increases 100-fold, and quickens the process to eventually a shorter-time-span of reaction-to-action curve – or extinction within just a few years . . .

The Wild Horses on Public lands is foremost in this matter, as well as wolves, bears, and cougars, as being destroyed — apparently a priority for the ignorant, the politicians that feed upon fear and hate, and those who simply follow such ravings – which are nothing more than distorted and disgusting lies brought about by Special Interest groups and lunatics.

Because the species–area curve is non-linear, the clearing to date (or the overwhelming destruction of Public Lands from cattle) of much of America’s Public Lands, are predicted to eliminate 42% of the species that they contain (some scientists predict much higher numbers as well as much faster). The time delays before extinction mean that many more species should be ‘threatened’ than have already become extinct; that is, they are thought likely to become extinct in the wild in the medium-term future. For example with the elimination of wild horses, wolves, cougars, et al., at least 12% of all plants and 11% of all birds will come into this category as well.

Of course, more cattle onto Public Lands x2 would eliminate the other 85% of species that they contain. The extinction curve should accelerate rapidly to a peak by a decade or two if the rate of livestock increase and destruction of Public Lands remains constant. But it will be upon us sooner if that rate increases as it has been for a few years now — as seems probable.

Oddly Beef remains at 28% product thrown away (not consumed), with 4% thrown away in commercial process, and another 7% lost in transport – Yes, we apparently have an over-abundance of beef in America . . .

Once the extinction peak has passed, the extinction curve declines, perhaps into the twenty-second century as species are lost from the remaining fragments of habitat. The relative height of the peak depends critically on the amount of habitat that remains. A value of 5% of remaining habitat would protect about 50% of all the Public Lands species; smaller percentages would lead to smaller estimates of surviving species.

Habitat destruction areas remain blatantly obvious — Species found only within the areas are themselves destroyed, then eliminated, just as the habitat around them.

One observation interesting, when we considerer HMA’s within a biological paradigm – whereby, species with small ranges are typically scarcer within their ranges than are more widely distributed species, making them yet more vulnerable.

Consequently, even random destruction would create centers of extinction that match the concentrations of small-ranged species — the hotspots. So the ideology of the HMA’s on Public Lands, when first developed were very protective areas, but when manipulated, in this case for Special Interests, these HMA’s become burdensome, even dangerous to the Wild Horses as well as other animals moving toward extinction . . . Look at the term Feral once out of an HMA – a term changed with the WH&B Act to accommodate welfare ranching is all . . .

Worse, however, the HMA’s destruction, as it becomes obvious through consistency, may not have been random at all — rather malevolent. In the HMA areas designated as Wild Horse Safety Zones basically, cattle, rather than Wild Horses become the majority influence upon the Public Lands areas just by sheer numbers alone; only 12% of the original primary vegetation remains within many of the cattle grazing permit areas, compared with about 50% Public Lands as a whole.

Ironically, even within those HMA’s, the areas richest in endemic plant species — species that are found there and only there and only cattle graze and horses do not graze — have proportionately the least remaining vegetation and the smallest areas currently protected.

Applying the species–area relationship to the individual hotspots gives the prediction that 18% of all their species will eventually become extinct if all of the remaining habitats within HMA’s were quickly protected. These HMA’s, deductively, would eventually lose about 40% of all their species.

All of these projections ignore other effects on biodiversity, such as the possibly adverse impact of global warming, and further introduction of more alien species, for example sheep or goats, which is a well-documented cause of extinction of native species as well. Elk, for example, have obtained a virus from Goats feces that are fatal to Elk, et al and the virus transmitted through other infected Elk . . . Yet Cougar and Wolves blamed for Elk destruction – demonstrates beyond a doubt the iron-clad grip of lies and ignorance within our management of wildlife today . . .

ACTION REQUIRED

Unless there is immediate action to salvage the remaining and currently unprotected HMA’s and Wild Horses and their areas, the species losses will more than double. When this happens the Wild Horses will be Extinct – NONE LEFT!

There is, however, a glimmer of light in this gloomy picture. High densities of small-ranged species make many species vulnerable to extinction. But equally this pattern allows both minds and budgets to be concentrated on the prevention of nature’s untimely end. Protecting them is necessary, but not sufficient – consider they are supposedly protected currently, but that is the lie of all lies – as Wild Horses are not protected at all!

Unless we as a civilization start considering the “truth” rather than lies of convenience for the wealthy and special interests, we will see not only wild horses become extinct, but many, many other wildlife as well as many other environments / biospheres – Conclusively, ignorance is not the path toward humane reasoning – rather, truth is the pathway to sound judgment, good management, and prolific living circumstances in America and abroad . . .

And need I say, the ability to walk out into nature, into areas with wild life, horses, predators and everything we dream about that exits, and actually pause for a moment and see them alive, in their habitat – being as one – with nature . . .

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Predicting how populations decline to extinction Phil Trans R Soc B 12 September 2011: 2577-2586.

Phylogenetic conservatism of environmental niches in mammals Proc R Soc B 7 August 2011: 2384-2391.

Rarity as a life-history correlate in Dudleya (Crassulaceae) Am. J. Bot. 1 July 2011: 1104-1112.

Correlates of Vertebrate Extinction Risk in Canada BioScience 1 July 2011: 538-549.

Unexpected patterns of fisheries collapse in the world’s oceans Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 17 May 2011: 8317-8322.

Unravelling the structure of species extinction risk for predictive conservation science Proc R Soc B 7 May 2011: 1329-1338.

The bigger they come, the harder they fall: body size and prey abundance influence predator-prey ratios Biol Lett 23 April 2011: 312-315.

Primate extinction risk and historical patterns of speciation and extinction in relation to body mass Proc R Soc B 22 April 2011: 1256-1263.

Correlates of rediscovery and the detectability of extinction in mammals Proc R Soc B 7 April 2011: 1090-1097.

Beyond Predictions: Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing Climate Science 1 April 2011: 53-58.

Bird population trends are linearly affected by climate change along species thermal ranges Proc R Soc B 7 December 2010: 3601-3608.

Quantitative Traits and Diversification Syst Biol 1 December 2010: 619-633.

Population and geographic range dynamics: implications for conservation planning Phil Trans R Soc B 27 November 2010: 3743-3751.

Phylogenetic diversity does not capture body size variation at risk in the world’s mammals Proc R Soc B 22 August 2010: 2435-2441.

Extreme contagion in global habitat clearance Proc R Soc B 7 April 2010: 1081-1085.

World System, Anthropogenic, and Ecological Threats to Bird and Mammal Species: A Structural Equation Analysis of Biodiversity Loss Organization Environment 1 March 2010: 3-31.

Multiple ecological pathways to extinction in mammals Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 30 June 2009: 10702-10705.

Life on the edge: carnivore body size variation is all over the place Proc R Soc B 22 April 2009: 1469-1476.

High variability in patterns of population decline: the importance of local processes in species extinctions Proc R Soc B 7 January 2009: 63-69.

The Status of the World’s Land and Marine Mammals: Diversity, Threat, and Knowledge Science 10 October 2008: 225-230.

Phylogenetic trees and the future of mammalian biodiversity Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12 August 2008: 11556-11563.

The Evolution and Distribution of Species Body Size Science 18 July 2008: 399-401.

A Significant Upward Shift in Plant Species Optimum Elevation During the 20th Century Science 27 June 2008: 1768-1771.

The predictability of extinction: biological and external correlates of decline in mammals Proc R Soc B 22 June 2008: 1441-1448.

Higher origination and extinction rates in larger mammals Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 22 April 2008: 6097-6102.

The island rule: made to be broken? Proc R Soc B 22 January 2008: 141-148.

Accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations in mitochondrial protein-coding genes of large versus small mammals Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 14 August 2007: 13390-13395.

Selective extinction of late Neogene bivalves on the temperate Pacific coast of South America Paleobiology 1 June 2007: 455-468.

Late Holocene extinction of Puerto Rican native land mammals Biol Lett 22 April 2007: 193-196.

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Latent extinction risk and the future battlegrounds of mammal conservation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 14 March 2006: 4157-4161.

 
2 Comments

Posted by on June 23, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Wild Horse Herd Advocates versus BLM and PZP Supporters Who Want to Liquidate America’s Wild Horses

cascade mtn pasture    “Conservation is getting nowhere because it is incompatible with our Abrahamic concept of land. We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.” — Aldo Leopold

Interesting is the fact that when we discuss the subject of Wild Horses on Public Lands, and their rights to be there, we discover surprising results. What we discover is that government agencies, the Department of the Interior as well as its subordinate agency, the Bureau of Land Management — simply ignore Law.

Ironic, since we consider ourselves to be a Nation of Laws. This ideology is what creates our social-civility as well as humane interactions with others and conduct through our life. These two agencies mentioned here, indeed ignore Congressional mandates that limit, and even prohibit particular management situations of America’s Wild Horses. We can determine from this that indeed, it prohibits the humane and even the ethical treatment of our nation’s Wild Horse Herds, favoring commercialism, the placement of too many cattle onto Public Lands, only for short term profits instead. And yet . . .

Laws directly related to humane and ethical conduct

Recently, the profound interest and use of PZP on America’s Wild Horses, is a fact of misinterpretation as well as misinformation leading to such a drastic measure. The misleading and false information that we have only “limited options” and that such a drastic measure as unorthodox breeding-control is acceptable remains troublesome to many. Lies and bad conduct, mixed with government intrusion upon America’s wild life often is of unscrupulous, certainly debatable, and by many considered mismanagement.

No options? Really? Within a profound context, and simply a light perusal of our laws governing America’s Public Lands, and that includes America’s Wild Horses, we easily locate a chest full with good and robust options for the correct management of our Wild Horses as well as our Public Lands.

Not so ironic, all we have to do is go by several laws already established to manage our Public Lands, which indeed creates diversity as well – I mention this as when we discuss Public Lands, the discussion actually centers around this same diversity of use. When knowledgeable of the subject, yes combating ignorance at high levels of government always an extraordinary experience to say the least, we find many laws quite compatible with not only Public Land Management usage, diversity, but quite receptive to and compatible with Wild Life, to include Wild Horses.

In reality that the lands and resources managed by the Bureau of Land Management can best be—and must be—sustainably managed for the American people under the conservation mandate set forth in the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). Other Laws do exist, and support one another within this same capacity, i.e. NEPA, the Taylor Grazing Act, and so forth . . . and very similar is sustainability and biodiversity methodology and putting ideology toward common sense solutions and workable resolutions.

The Multiple Use and Sustained Yield direction given within FLPMA requires government agencies to be competent, objective, restrain themselves toward professional management (compared to current and unsatisfactory criminal behavior and special interest only endeavors), and to work with well informed responsible public land users.  It involves a multitude of resources, uses, and issues perhaps toward equitable resolution, all with major environmental, social and economic consequences . . .

Why is there conflict? The major cause is the misinterpretation of Laws that already exist. The attempts to misinform the American Taxpaying Public, then base pertinent decisions on this misinformation, conclusively generates not only bad management, but spending of taxpayer money, pretty much wasted in total – one can say BLM employees irresponsibly frivolous with so much taxpayer money.

FLPMA, for example, has set forth four broad principles, which we all believe should guide BLM.  These four principles: Renewability, Adaptability, Stewardship, and Equity, if diligently adhered to in the policy, during the development of plans, and daily on-the-ground decision making in conformity with the FLPMA mandate, can precisely result in the lands and resources of Public Lands being truly sustainable.

Misinformation and disruptive special interest priorities have made void these very precise principles and, least we not forget, Law; thereby, we can say this government agency, the BLM, has indeed ignored the law, favoring short-term profit over good management.

There is criminal behavior involved in the ignoring of this law as well, when we consider budgets and procurement policies set aside, in particular from fraudulent information in the matters of decisions to provide financing for such knowingly misguided and misinformed conduct. One has got to wonder about PZP, and if a thorough research of the drug, a pesticide, would have been enough for the approval to responsibly Procure using taxpayer money. Evidence shows it was procured, despite the many regulatory situations leading to Procurement that were indeed ignored, or even waived (?) — the situation to purchase violated not only regulatory situations, but Laws as well, both in Procurement and in FLPMA – there is no Long-Term studies available (as noted in the EPA application) that are applicable to the pesticide safety within such environments as Public Lands, or any environmental circumstances other than captivity . . . for that matter. This is very serious within itself.

Then we can also go to the very real situation of Environmental Assessments, for example, are not in accord with FLPMA or the intent what so ever – to manage Public Lands appropriately and by law. Further perusal of such items as EA’s or the use of PZP by a government agency, and we also discover several Procurement regulatory situations as well as Laws broken . . . fraudulent behavior, which is nothing more than to supply a government agency with false or misleading information to obtain taxpayer money.

Defining Multiple Use

“The term “multiple use” means the management of the public lands and their various resource values so that they are utilized in the combination that will best meet the present and future needs of the American people; making the most judicious use of the land for some or all of these resources or related services over areas large enough to provide sufficient latitude for periodic adjustments in use to conform to changing needs and conditions; the use of some land for less than all of the resources; a combination of balanced and diverse resource uses that takes into account the long-term needs of future generations for renewable and nonrenewable resources, including, but not limited to, recreation, range, timber, minerals, watershed, wildlife and fish, and natural scenic, scientific and historical values; and harmonious and coordinated management of the various resources without permanent impairment of the productivity of the land and the quality of the environment with consideration being given to the relative values of the resources and not necessarily to the combination of uses that will give the greatest economic return or the greatest unit output.

The term “sustained yield” means the achievement and maintenance in perpetuity of a high-level annual or regular periodic output of the various renewable resources of the public lands consistent with multiple use.”

It is simply time for Ethical Ingenuity and Behavior

Aldo Leopold wrote brilliantly about what is needed to achieve an ethical relationship with land.  What stewardship requires, he pointed out is an intense consciousness of land. His concept of a “land ethic” is undeniably necessary for us to achieve sustainability for our public lands and resources.  What we all must do, he said, is to, “Examine each question in terms of what is ethically and esthetically right, as well as what is economically expedient.  A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community.  It is wrong when it tends otherwise.”

Sustainable development balance is relatively easy de novo, but what happens when sustainable management decisions negatively impact the expectations and benefits deriving from precedent social and economic values and uses of public lands and resources?

The answer to that question usually involves bureaucratic mandates, political trumpery and litigation.  The principle of equity means that sustainability for the public lands can not come about overnight, rather it requires a fair and orderly process over sufficient time to reasonably adjust historical expectations and accommodate the social and economic changes concomitant with that adjustment.  This will require longer term thinking than public land agencies usually apply (unfortunately never apparently exceeding four years).

A very strong reality, the fact that BLM conduct should be predicated in accord with law, rather than ignoring and generating questionable situations and many situations even contrary to law, would make the Public Lands landscape superior just from attritional aspects – basically doing the right things to manage our Public Lands . . .

By the same token, the sustainability principle of equity requires adequate reimbursement in support of Public Land Management in return for the profits and benefits made possible through the use of those lands and public resources.  This process must account for and assure to the Public Lands appropriate reimbursement for the external costs of public land and resource uses.

Addressing this principle will require a change in historic laws and policies such as the Mining Law of 1872 and grazing fees where a responsible market value of the resources taken is not presently returned to the public to pay the costs of Public Land Management. These factors also control the usage, rather than random use and unorthodox welfare ranching practice of receiving subsidies for nothing, other than high-profits – the American Taxpayer receives nothing (zero) even though paying these high subsidies to welfare ranchers where they purchase planes, new RV’s, Boats, their kids to college, mansions, pools, and we are stuck with their bills.

Biodiversity — Sustainability

Biodiversity can simply be defined as the variation of life at a given site or ecosystem. However, it is through this diversity that natural systems adapt, evolve, and thrive. This link is so strong that the term biodiversity is regarded as synonymous with ecosystem health. Diverse ecosystems usually have “increased stability, increased productivity, and resistance to invasion and other disturbances.” It is these features that make biodiversity desirable within a given biological community/biome. Most importantly, biodiversity holds enormous value for the entire planet!

Reality within Conclusion

Many of us find it disturbing that DOI / BLM misinterpret, and on many occasions even ignore America’s Laws in regard to Public Lands Management. The astounding fact is the BLM is a cirrupt government agency, where they represent commercialist endeavors, and to hell with all else – and that includes human and wildlife – the ethics and morals of this government agency can be well-defined as — Having None!

The PZP situation, ignoring of Environmental Assessments, taxpayers covering the cost of horses being stolen from BLM inventory and sent to slaughter, the corrupt Welfare Ranching Program, and on and on. . . Illegal? Absolutely! Being done? Yes, and well confirmed by not only observation and witnesses, but BLM’s own government paperwork. Can Public Lands survive? Only if the laws, policy, and regulatory aspects of land management, already in place and perfectly functional, are used.

The fact is the BLM is the most litigated government agency in American History – not because of land-litigations, but because the BLM ignores current laws and policies they are directed to obey. Restructuring and ridding the BLM of many current employees, many criminals, can indeed make it a superior agency – but the way it is now, it is absurd and a waste of taxpayer money – Wild Horses depend on us, just as our environment – and nothing can survive the ever present and current criminal behavior that exists right now, and within the BLM / DOI.
_______________________________

FLPMA PDF Document — http://www.blm.gov/or/regulations/files/FLPMA.pdf

Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) (PDF)

O&C Lands Act of 1937 (PDF)

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) (PDF)

Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (PDF)

Reauthorized Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (PDF)

Payment Information

Omnibus Public Land Management Act (Public Law 111-11) (PDF)

General Mining Laws (overview only, actual legislation in the future)

Mineral Leasing Act and Amendments (30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.) (PDF)

The Federal Land Transfer Facilitation Act (P.L. 106-248) (PDF)

The Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, as amended through 1/2006 (PDF)

Cultural/Historic Protection and Preservation Acts

Fee System for Commercial Filming Activities on Federal land (PDF)

See Final Rule 43 CFR Parts 3000, 3150, 3200, 3500, 3730, 3740, 3810, and 3830–Minerals Management:  Adjustment of Cost Recovery, 9/5/07, Federal Register (72 FR 50882-50889)

Leopold, Aldo, “A Sand County Almanac.”  Oxford University Press. 1949.

The Tragedy of the Commons is a dilemma in which multiple individuals acting independently in their own self interest can ultimately destroy a shared resource even where it is clear that it is not in anyone’s long term interest for this to happen.  (Hardin, Garrett,

“The Tragedy of the Commons.”  Science. 1968.  Wikipedia.) http://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/veg_measure/Modules/Lessons/Module%207/7_2_Biodiversity.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem_diversity

http://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/veg_measure/Modules/Lessons/Module%207/7_2_Biodiversity.htm.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_hotspot http://blog.richmond.edu/geog250/2010/04/13/biodiversity-hotspots/

http://www.globalissues.org/article/787/addressing-biodiversity-loss

http://www.globalissues.org/article/170/why-is-biodiversity-important-who-cares

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaia_philosophy

http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/teacher_resources/project_ideas/balanced_ecosystem/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen_Cycle.svg

http://www.teebweb.org/

http://www.teebweb.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=I4Y2nqqIiCg%3d & tabid=1052&language=en-US

http://www.un-redd.org/AboutREDD/tabid/582/Default.aspx

http://www.teebweb.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=I4Y2nqqIiCg%3d & tabid=1052&language=en-US, pg.18

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6432217.stm

http://www.globalissues.org/article/171/loss-of-biodiversity-and-extinctions

http://www.psrast.org/globecolcr.htm

http://edition.cnn.com/2003/TECH/science/05/14/coolsc.disappearingfish/

http://www.acer-acre.org/ClimateChangeCD/sec_resources/articles/Warming%20may%20threaten%20species%20by%202050%20WP%20Jan04.htm

http://www.globalissues.org/article/171/loss-of-biodiversity-and-extinctions

http://www.globalissues.org/article/172/climate-change-affects-biodiversity http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/eco_coral.html

 
2 Comments

Posted by on April 17, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Death to America’s Wild Horses: Public Lands at the Crossroad and Time For Change

say no to blm

“One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we’ve been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We’re no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It’s simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we’ve been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back.”
― Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark

American’s, the taxpaying public, needs to start looking at – and understanding what the problems are, existing right now on our Public Lands. Ignoring such a large segment of our lands, and the management conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (i.e. BLM), has led to nothing less than criminality and single-purpose destruction by industrial and corporate entities – who indeed remain untrustworthy and even irresponsible toward America’s needs, taxpayer dollars, America’s wild horses, and Public Lands.

Public Lands, or what is termed “The Smell of Money” – diversity, mainly Special Interest and Lobby Groups, who fulfill their needs of high-profit methodology only. The sacrifice of our Public Lands, and the ever present and extensive destruction, both to land and wildlife, quite costly, and with taxpayers having no idea they subsidize this destruction daily — in the $-billions of dollars yearly.

The GAO (i.e. Government Accountability Office) states in several reports it costs the American Taxpayer $450 million yearly just to administer Welfare Ranching and the BLM Grazing Permit program – this is a program for ranchers to graze their cattle on Public Lands. Subsidies for ranchers and corporations on Public Lands and on a yearly basis, are given directly — $-millions of dollars more.

Ironically, the demand by these Welfare Rancher’s to remove Wild Horses from Public Lands, which also cost millions of dollars more, and on a yearly basis to complete, certainly compound the Public Lands expenses tremendously; although, if the Wild Horses left alone, would cost American Taxpayer’s next to nothing.

The Bureau of Land Management, or what some term as a government agency that is in reality a Special Interest and Corporate Clone, ignores Federal Law and legislation. Instead this Public Lands Management oversight agency ignores its legislative purpose of managing for multi-purpose use, then simply segments into Special-Interest use only – while ignoring ethics and actual-reality and honest Stewardship.

By the way, and certainly not to be ignored, it is of paramount reasoning for taxpayers to subsidize within a budget approved process, these government agencies – the BLM and DOI, with the use of taxpayer money entirely. It is time to question this financing as well, and the implications as to why explained within the context below – a few reasons of many, many more that exist. . .

Wild Horses on Public Lands

The BLM ignores the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act (WFRHBA) which provides protections to wild horses and burros on lands where they existed in 1971; as well as FLPMA, Taylor Grazing Act, NEPA, and other laws that involve protections of our Public Lands that directly prohibit destruction or abuse by ranchers and industry. They permanently removed, and continue at a costly price, wild horses and/or burros from approximately 22.2 million acres, and blame the wild horses for the destruction. Ridiculous? Absolutely! Founded on Fact? Not at all, and none exists!

The BLM continues to justify these decisions to “zero-out” herds based on pure Non-Fact. This is accomplished, actually by lies, now obvious to all involved, and reasoning why there exists no transparency at all (as discussed further):

1. checkerboard (private/public) land ownership;

2. a lack of critical resources required to sustain wild horse and/or burro populations (i.e., water, food, space, cover);

3. land transfers;

4. substantial conflict with other resource values; legal decisions or for other reasons.

But the situations here compounded, and disastrous to America’s Wild Horse Herds . . . “The capture, handling, and transportation process inherent to wild horse removals has destroyed wild horse bands, disrupted social dynamics of wild populations, and led to injuries and deaths of captured animals. While some amount of injuries/mortalities are expected when handling wild animals, many of the incidents that have occurred are entirely preventable; the result of negligence, abusive capture techniques, or cruel handling practices employed by those contracted to conduct the roundups.

Thriving Natural Ecological Balance

This author, after thorough research has found no official definition of a “thriving natural ecological balance” (TNEB) given to the public by any government agency, especially the BLM or DOI. This becomes extremely significant, as this is what defines the measures used by the BLM to assess whether a TNEB exists. But not so ironic, without a formal definition TNEB criteria, or standards to assess TNEB, the BLM has an awkward discretion in determining if a TNEB exists or not. This provides the BLM the opportunity to make claims that a TNEB does not exist which are then difficult to challenge.

Further, it sets-up a definable illegal-aspect of fraud. Well defined within government procurement policy and law, (in author synoptic form here) that situations must develop within a well-defined parameter of management and actual operational aspects via pre-explained and well structured and objective plans; in another words, to actually explain in well-defined terms, the reasoning for not only an appropriate budget expense while using taxpayer dollars (often in the millions of dollars), but to summarize the necessity as well as the management principles to appeal to such an arrangement. Does it actually resolve a problem, or create new problems?

So in reality the TNEB becomes nothing more than Cart Blanc or a freestyle-spending of taxpayer money, because no objective is ever given on such false and undefined, lack of data procedure. Although, what we do discover is more problems, and not so surprising, cost taxpayers much more money; as well we cannot neglect the situation job-security for the managers of such cumbersome and non-factual circumstances – to simply spend taxpayer money even more freely, and with little to no transparency or explanation while doing so.

Facts and Data? Just immaterial to a BLM employee and their supervisory staff. No one is watching – because no on really knows what is the ongoing situation on Public Lands.

But if it was defined, then most often there would be the big question – Is this Legal and is it Needed? And most often the aspects and reasoning for a roundup would not be applicable, needed or required, or legal. But the aspect of the overabundance of cattle would become prevalent, would it not? Of course it would, because this is the only reality-fact of this entire circumstance, the cattle, the overall and factual reasoning toward the destruction of Public Lands.

The BLM claims that such removals are required to restore the “thriving natural ecological balance” and to permit “multiple-use” of the land. But the fact is the situation has always been questionable; especially when no legitimate facts or data is given for the extreme and costly roundups.

BLM DOI and Bad Science

The fact is the subject of cattle, or even the mention of cattle have been taken from any Range Management Research – or decision makers have been told to simply ignore the facts of the cattle and their destructive elements of grazing. Once again, these government agencies are responsible for spending large amounts of taxpayer money, in the $-millions, and for corrupt data, no data, bad science. Budgets are based on this information often within government procurement situations.

Bad Science + False information = Costly / Corrupt Decisions. There is a fact here though, the fact of no-resolution achieved. What follows is simply compounded – to cover-up a bad decision (incompetence actually) other programs such as PZP and breeding control started, costing taxpayers millions more in hidden agenda budgets, grants, and scholarships; which have become quite outstanding currently.

In one conversation we found a Contract Scientist, a PZP researcher, was asked to supply data from any long term studies he may have in regard to the use and safety, and future results to Wild Horses health, when administering PZP into their bodies. His response was simply, (in synoptic form here), “. . . sure we had the data in our heads, but no one wrote it down. But we know what it is we’re doing.”

This comment, he tried to make us believe, would resolve the “no data present” issue and cover over 30 years of no data – the PZP questionable today, and highly suspect in regard to unsafe or unwanted and extreme negative health situations – the data if accurate, would have pointed this out and prevention or No Sale to this government agency would have developed. Instead, it is based on false information as well as no information what so ever – so BLM incompetence strikes again, and again . . .

“. . . Though any effort to prevent pregnancy will result in an impact to individual animals, herd structure, and mare/stallion behavior, the vast majority of scientists have determined that those impacts are miniscule or inconsequential, and pale in comparison to the disruptive impacts of roundups and removals.” PZP research staff and principles

This statement brought to us by those who have no “long-term-data” on their research, and expect administering PZP via roundups to operate this way. Well, even this has been proven in error, and in accord with Agricultural Reports of horses going to slaughter in both Canada and Mexico (export data overwhelming) and directly related to the PZP added roundups situation and operations. We have found since the conception of this supposed “new” resolution to cover-up older cover-ups, more wild horses are going to slaughter than ever before – and those mares who received PZP injections, often do not make it back to Public Lands what so ever – rather many are simply sent to slaughter, as well as with stallions that are also rounded up during the PZP plan, simply loaded and taken directly to slaughter. (i.e. confirmed)

Currently, there is no way to check for the hazards of PZP, other than experiment on the Wild Horses, costing taxpayers $-millions of dollars more, even though the PZP program did fail in 1996 and for similar reasoning brought up here – bad data, no data, and incompetent handling of wild horses, and horses health and ecological systems placed into jeopardy.

One has got to suspect how costly the next situation will cost the taxpayers, to cover up the falsehoods of the PZP situation, that is covering up the falsehoods of the roundups situation, that is covering up the falsehoods of BLM personnel, who are in reality extremely incompetent and do not know much about wild horses or their band behaviors.

This is the way BLM operates. If the data not there, well, of course they know what they are doing, after all it is in their heads. The problem is the fact it is in their head, and the dollar signs for everyone involved are quite overwhelming at times – and while covering up this situation, they have also hidden the fact, due to no transparency, that none of those involved in the Wild Horse and Burro Program are really qualified to do so.

I think it legitimate to state, unequivocally, it is time for change – To actually get the BLM out of the wild horse management business – The taxpayer money extended to this government agency is simply a waste of money and waste of time – Many of us would like to see these situations investigated, as taxpayers also pay a substantial amount of money to be protected from criminal behavior within government agencies. . .
_______________________________

References:

http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/whbprogram/history_and_facts/quick_facts.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/bad-science-when-breakthrough-research-turns-out-to-be-fraudulent-9629517.html

http://www.livescience.com/27255-bad-science-retracted-papers.html

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/absolutely-maybe/2013/09/08/bad-research-rising-the-7th-olympiad-of-research-on-biomedical-publication/

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, The Border: Are Environmental Laws and Regulation Impeding Security and Harming the Environment? testimony of U.S. Customs and Border Protection Deputy Chief Ronald Vitiello, 112t/Cong., 1stsess., April 15, 2011

P.L. 91-190; 42 U.S.C. §§ 4321-4347.

For more information on U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) compliance with NEPA and the environmental impact of its border security programs, see CBP, “SBI Environmental Documents,” http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/ border_security/otia/sbi_news/sbi_enviro_docs/.

http://naturalresources.house.gov/Info/BorderOverview.htm.

A related issue is the authority, and litigation challenging the authority, to construct and maintain border barriers (the “fence”), including waivers from environmental protection statutes. However, this issue is not discussed in this report, because it is not limited to the federal lands. For information on issues related to the border barrier, see CRS Report
R42138, Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry, by Marc R. Rosenblum.

GAO-11-177, Border Security: Additional Actions Needed, p. 4.

See http://robbishop.house.gov/UploadedFiles/DHS.pdf..

GAO-11-177, Border Security: Additional Actions Needed, p. 15.

GAO-11-177, Border Security: Additional Actions Needed, p. 15.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Fiscal Year 2012 President’s Budget: Budget Justification, p. 16-45.

This estimate of the deferred maintenance for roads reflects passenger-car roads. Including high-clearance roads, the total estimate of deferred maintenance for roads is $4.4 billion. Using this total roads estimate would yield approximately a $6.56 billion overall estimate of FS deferred maintenance.

This information was provided to CRS by the DOI Budget Office on May 10, 2011.

S.T. Dana and S.K. Fairfax, Forest and Range Policy: Its Development in the United States, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980), pp. 158-164. 38

See, e.g., http://rangenet.org/directory/shumant/endgrazing.html.

See Assessing Forest Ecosystem Health in the Inland West, ed. R.N. Sampson, D.L. Adams, and M. Enzer (New York: Food Products Press, 1994); see also CRS Report RS20822, Forest Ecosystem Health: An Overview, by Ross W. Gorte.

See http://www.forestsandrangelands.gov/resources/overview/.

See CRS Report R41691, Forest Management for Resilience and Adaptation, by Ross W. Gorte.

For USFS: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Land Areas Report—As of Sept 30, 2010, Tables 1 and 4, http://www.fs.fed.us/land/staff/lar/LAR2010/lar2010index.html. Data reflect land within the National Forest System, including national forests, national grasslands, purchase units, land utilization projects, experimental
areas, and other areas.

For NPS: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Land Resources Division, National Park Service, Listing of Acreage by State, as of 12/31/2010, unpublished document. Data reflect federally owned lands managed by the NPS. For information on acreage by unit, see the NPS website, http://www.nature.nps.gov/stats/ acreagemenu.cfm.

For FWS: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Annual Report of Lands Under Control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as of September 30, 2010, Table 2, http://www.fws.gov/refuges/realty/archives/pdf/2010_Annual_Report_of_Lands.pdf. Data reflect all federally owned land over which the FWS has sole or primary jurisdiction.

For BLM: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics, 2010, Table1-http://www.blm.gov/public_land_statistics/pls10/pls10_combined.pdf.

For DOD: U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Installations & Environment, Base Structure Report, Fiscal Year 2010 Baseline (A Summary of DoD’s Real Property Inventory), VIII. Total DoD Inventory, pp. DoD-36 to DoD-78, http://www.acq.osd.mil/ie/download/bsr/bsr2010baseline.pdf.

 
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Posted by on April 5, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Wild Horses Bears Wolves Cougars: Ignorance verses Humanity

john babe oak trees winter

“The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.” ― Mahatma Gandhi

One thing I learned about animals is the fact they have a lot to teach us. I continue to observe horses, cougars, and wolves and what I refer to as their humane and noteworthy kinship. This is very important for all of us to consider, as it is humans, who have indeed lost the very thread of kinship entirely.

This kinship I speak of holds humanity and respect toward all things together. It is and remains not just the ideology, or perspective of “all is connected” within this world, but a working mentality these animals have instinctually, an in-born cause and effect if you will, of a decency we as people left in our past sadly long, long ago.

We create effective notoriety, take what you need and to hell with the rest, within iconic ideologies such as religion, politics, social structure, media presence, and other things of not really that much significance. And yet we as a social group, ignore in its entirety any perspective or respect toward another life – the reality, to all living matter that surrounds us daily. Ironically, these things I mention were meant to bring us all together, not develop into excuses as to why we can abuse or even kill other people or animals.

“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.” ― Aristotle

The acceptable mode is comfort in our living rooms, or within heavily controlled outdoor activity; the facts ignored, of the sacrifices developed to have these things. After all, no one really wants to get depressed because an animal was tortured before being put to death for a bite or two of their meat, and the rest most often thrown away . . . How arrogant of those people who would remind us of such things, so the ignorant state in a plausible note of scorn, or excuse to run-down or condemn those who do see this awful reality, and then actually say something about it!

In achieving one goal toward any of these ideologies and or idiosyncratic creations of perspective, we override, essentially sacrifice and forget in total the humane treatment of all animals, our surroundings, and do not even ponder the disrespect we give toward God’s creation and all the other animals of this planet.

Humanity is being left behind for monetary results, egos, and troubled and conflicted minds. The lack of compassion, currently even to other humans by politicians, by representatives of several religions, or by those who know better — is the disease we fight currently – noteworthy as well, it is Ignorance!

It is an epidemic, make no doubt — because ignorance is just that – an unforgiving epidemic that often appears to have no resolution. Who are these people that negotiate better ways of, for example of oh so many more examples that exist, killing Cougars by being hunted down by dogs and shot – even though unneeded – but the compromise exists because of perceptive, not reality or based on facts . . . And those who actually met and negotiated these results feel they should be held with respect?

I say no, that is disgusting – they should be held in contempt, as they have disregarded the very basis of humanity, of decency, of ethics, or of simply living together with others who have just as much right on this planet as they do – Yes, Ignorance is a terrible and disgusting situation human-kind had evolved into on our planet of today — right now, and as I write this down, and while you are reading it.

To better ourselves as humans, within a humane mental outlook and a spirit of love – sadly many people call this an unachievable dream – Really? That is simply too bad, isn’t it — for all involved.

 
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Posted by on March 24, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Saving Wild Horses Plan A — The Future of Wild Horse Herds on Public Lands

touched by nature

“A dream you dream alone is only a dream. A dream you dream together is reality.” ― John Lennon

We need options to resolve the mess not only what our Public Lands are experiencing currently, but options for America’s Icon, the Wild Horses. We are currently placing together a Plan of Action (i.e. Biologists, Media People, Researchers, Terrestrial Biologists, Archeologists, and Marine Biologists),and have been in the works for a while, in regard toward a Priority Circumstance, and to place Wild Horses back onto Public Lands.

Within the frame-work of this particular plan is a technological situation of developing honest Wild Horse Head Counts and in regard to legal ratios of Sheep and Cattle head counts. But more than that, within the same technology we find the abilities to consider grassland studies as well as riparian studies measured accurately and appropriately and within a scientific data gathering process method.

As well we can also show with this same bit of technology, the patterns of cattle, compared to sheep, compared to wild horses, compared to other wildlife such as deer, Elk, et al. This methodology and equipment is available, and has been ignored by government, as it is plain and simple way too accurate – they would be held accountable – and accountability within these current government agencies is not to their liking.

The assumptive problem is, and has been no oversight toward the Bureau of Land Management or the Department of the Interior, as well as human involvement which has in most situations become criminal in method, and the most powerful of all is that no one being held responsible due to the vastness of operational involvement and management aspects.

We can resolve these issues. We are also placing into this plan Police-Action, which will monitor the sheep and cattle and rancher honesty (as they tell many American’s they are so honest, so that should not be a problem, should it?) We find this plan of action not only appropriate, but have assimilated a positive aspect from some legislators as well, within a confidential setting.

So to admonish and claim there is no plan of action from those against PZP as well as against welfare ranching – the options are building exponentially large, and after a while one or two may be implemented – and saving taxpayers Billions upon Billions of dollars $$$$$$ Saved.

We need to rid our system of all current wild horse management paradigms and current management situations, as being too costly, too criminal, and too greed-incentive to be of any use what so ever to our natural habitat on America’s Public Lands. There will be one day when it is needed, and it simply will not be available due to over-use, mismanagement, and used within criminal activity, which in a summation — our Public Lands are being destroyed for short-term profits . . . Options are available that are much better and superior to especially what is ongoing currently.

America needs to Wake Up to these apparent options available, and not the options that currently exist for short-term profit.

 
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Posted by on February 24, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Tags: , ,

Wild Horse To Slaughter — Part II BLM, Taxpayer Money, Corruption

kl trail williamson

“And not only the pride of intellect, but the stupidity of intellect. And, above all, the dishonesty, yes, the dishonesty of intellect. Yes, indeed, the dishonesty and trickery of intellect.”
― Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina

Make no doubt the theft and stealing Wild Horses, then taking to slaughter, is an illegal criminal industry, and alive and well right here in the United States. The problem here is not only its illegality, but the fact taxpayers support this criminality, i.e. unknowingly. Many aspects of BLM (Bureau of Land Management) management of Wild Horses on Public Lands are illegal. It abounds in misconduct and criminal behavior of not only government employees, but private contractors as well.

We’re just now scratching the surface of this ongoing activity, for several decades now, and find it enormous in scale, and well organized from within a government agency.

We also find, as mentioned in Part I of this series of articles, when the criminal undercover investigation in 1991 started to issue federal felony arrest warrants, more than 1900 (i.e. to both BLM employees and private contractors) were to be issued but – called-off the night before the issuance. These same people – BLM employees and some private government contractors combined, still work for the BLM as well as acquire government contracts from the BLM and DOI – even though ethics policies and laws in place to prevent these types of situations, are simply ignored.

Keep in mind, first: the undercover investigation cost taxpayers $2 million+ tax dollars; second: the federal arrest warrants were not issued, not because of innocence, but due to the fear BLM would have a minimal work-force and incapable of operating as a government agency; thirdly, the Justice Department assumed the lengthy court process to be extensive, and would clog the courts for years to come . . . so rather than include an option to phase-out these criminal employees’, they were left to continue their criminal operations, using taxpayer money, and deriving large profits over the next two decades. Oversight become non-existent toward this government agency.

We have currently counted 58 BLM employees who were listed to receive a federal felony arrest warrant, and remain not only working for the BLM but serve as either administrative or management personnel, and many in charge of consulting with private contractors and in the matter of Wild Horse Herd management capacities. Two of which remain on the Wild Horse and Burro Board, which is certainly a questionable situation, as well as disrespectful toward taxpayers and the American citizen.

Rather than write about it, we continue the Interview from the undercover work of a Federal Agent. This interview takes place between a BLM Special Agent, and a BLM contractor and informant. The Special Agent and his material was then rejected by BLM Officials as being contrary to their ongoing policy, and then covered up.

The Special Agent, one of many within the Undercover Operation conducted by BLM and Justice Department oversight from the 1991 investigation, threatened within several disciplinary functions, administered by other BLM authorities as well as their legal department. Essentially, the interview transcript, thought to be the only copy, was destroyed by BLM legal department Attorneys. The Special Agent did keep a copy for himself. This is a patchwork of pertinent items taken from the actual interview.

Here is part of one Interview from the Undercover Investigation, and make no doubt the BLM is still operating as such today:

The Interview:

Agent: Let’s say you run 65 head in down here. You’ve got the BLM guy up on the mesa somewhere and he is watching with binoculars, you go and tell him there’s 50 head. Is that the way it works?

Informant: Right.

Agent: When in fact there is 65? What happens to the other 15 head?

Informant: The horses will be taken down to load out. Fifty head will be left there. The excess horses will be transported immediately out of there.

***Satellite Ranches (Journalist note: Paid for by taxpayer money and under false pretense, fraud)

Agent: What do you do with them then?

Informant: They’ll go to satellite ranches around the country.

This is an industry, Wild Horse Roundups and Horse Slaughter combined, and that makes money in abundance, most often from using taxpayer money. The BLM, the government agency responsible for Administering and Oversight, does not perform either function in a legal or responsible manner.

We can use here what was learned in Murderer’s Creek, Oregon Bait and Trap method of combined BLM/Forestry Roundups:

We discovered through perusal of FOIA BLM Inventory Sheets, 29 Wild Horses captured at Murderer’s Creek, inventoried as being loaded at the Trap Sight; although, eventually marked as DEAD. These 29 Wild Horses disappeared somewhere between Murderer’s Creek and shipment to the BLM corral and temporary storage facility in Burns, Oregon.

We spoke with both the Supervisor / Head Wrangler at Burns as well as being the person in charge of inventory at Murderer’s Creek since it was a BLM operation but the Forestry was conducting the roundup. He states clearly there were not 29 Wild Horses brought to the Burns, Oregon corrals, and insisted he did not know anything about this situation.

More troubling with this situation is the fact he was supposed to be On-Location whenever Wild Horses loaded into trailers for shipment to the Burns Corrals. This was a Forestry/BLM Trap and Bait Roundup, and there was a Forestry supervisor on location monitoring the trapping and loading of the Wild Horses. The Wild Horses were documented as being loaded, via inventory – receipts given, and payment given to the Private Contractor, which amounted to $1,000 per horse = $29,000 (i.e. taxpayer money lost to criminal behavior and conduct?) . . .

This is only a smaller example of what is ongoing in Nevada, Wyoming, Utah and other States where the BLM conduct Wild Horse Herd Rounds — and at Taxpayer Expense within the millions of dollars per roundup — which amounts to taxpayers covering the cost of roundups, storage, and transport for what is termed a Kill-Buyer, a person that has a truck and trailer to haul Wild Horses to Slaughter, either in Canada or Mexico, whoever has the best price for meat at the time. These are America’s Icons, the Wild Horses, and representative of America — and these people, BLM, Welfare Ranchers, and Kill-Buyers alike are spitting on and disrespecting every American by taking Our Wild Horses to Slaughter —

Keep in mind if this was legal, ethical, or morally correct, our government would be justifying these costs openly, rather than covering them up and consistently hiding them as they currently do so.
_______________________

So once again we go to the Interview of an actual and admitted participant within the actual operation of how it all works, and placed together within an organized context (continued from Interview above):

Agent: Explain to me, satellite ranch.

Informant: Well, a satellite ranch is a number of ranches’ throughout the different areas that we catch horses that we distribute horses to, and it’s just holding pins. They are paid so much money to just hold these horses for a certain time period until we come and pick them up again. Depending on what we want done with them, or where those horses are going, some of the horses may be hot-branded with different distributors’ brands, or the horses will just be transported as slick.

Agent: Slick, no brand at all?

Informant: No brand at all.

Agent: Where would they go, the slick?

Informant: Well, they’ll – most of them will go to a distributor somewhere and in a time period be hot-branded, or some of them may just be distributed out as slicks, and let the general public . . . Some of them, if they’re decent stock, will go to regular cattle ranches. Most of them, over a time period, will go to killers, you know. They’ll be sold to somebody and they’ll find out, well, this son-of-a-bitch ain’t worth a shit, so they go down the road.

Agent: What was the largest amount stolen – horses you saw stolen from the BLM at one time or another?

Informant: Around 60, 70 head.

Agent: How much would a contractor (***i.e. Journalist note: Contracted with the BLM) get for these 60, 70 head of horses?

Informant: Oh, he’ll get anywhere from $300 to $500 a horse (***1997 price – not that much lower today), depending on their size and what the horse looks like. If he’s a well-built horse, he’s going to get more. If he’s a scrawny old nag, he ain’t going to get as much.

Agent: Have you ever personally drove any of those horses to a satellite ranch?

Informant: More than once.

Agent: How does that work? You don’t do it during working hours; how does it work?

Informant: It depends. Sometimes we do it during working hours, you know. If they’re paid to be gone, that’s when we go. Most of the time its been at night, you know, after the counts been jimmied around, those horses are moved. And you strictly drove down there to a certain location, open a gate and dump those horses out in a bunch of other horses.

Agent: At the satellite ranch?

Informant: At the satellite ranch.

Agent: The BLM guy . . . take them to the satellite ranch, and then be back by the next morning –

Informant: Yes, sir.

Agent: Business as usual?

Informant: Business as usual. . .

Agent: Do you think the BLM is aware of what’s going on with this thing, with the jimmy and the count?

Informant: I know some of them are.

Agent: Some on the inside – like the people that are supposed to be watching you guys, or the gather crew knows about it, you think?

Informant: Sure. Some of those guys are truck drivers, and they inform as to different guys that want horses. They supply names and addresses and stuff, and they receive a small percentage of the sale price for that information.

(***Journalists note: any time money is expressed as changing hands, that precisely, or eventually, comes out of the taxpayers pockets – conducive toward Fraud is understood, thereby the criminal behavior, as well as theft)

Agent: So they’re Brokers, actually? They’ll give the contractors names to take stolen horses to?

Informant: Sure.

Agent: You told me that you observed the contractor pay the BLM agent with a check – a check for him. Is that correct?

Informant: Well, we just removed the horses when they was gone. He was to be gone for a certain amount of time. When he was gone, we loaded up and those horses were gone.

Agent: Do you think this is – is this a big money deal?

Informant: We’re well paid.

Agent: I’m talking about for the contractor. Is there a lot of money in this for the contractor?

Informant: He’s making a lot of money.

Agent: Is this a pretty good organization? This sounds like something that’s pretty well planned out, it’s a big organization?

Informant: Well, its very well set up, you know. There’s nobody that participates in it that isn’t well known and don’t know what’s going on.

Agent: Do you feel like there’s people inside the BLM that know about this practice, that are a part of this practice?

Informant: Sure. We can’t operate unless they’re standing there.

[***We skip over Black-Booking and other illegal activities and bogus counts for a later article]

Agent: Tell me about the mind-set of the cowboy. How does this work in your guy’s mind? I mean, do you feel like it’s stealing? Do you feel like the BLM condones it, or what?

Journalists note: This will demonstrate there is not only abuse toward horses, but also the mind-set or intellectual level of the people who have been manipulated and chosen to carry-out the actual theft. The mind set and behavior toward abusive circumstances that are indeed involved here, and the cowboys involved, have been taken advantage of in several different psychological circumstances. Leadership from officials, or ranch owners toward their hired help, is definitely a prominent and obvious factor within this entire subject. In another words, those that know better, but are willing to sacrifice ethics and even break the law for money, within their organized efforts to rip off the taxpayer, has been allowed up to this point by many authorities.)

Informant: Well, it’s not actually stealing in our way of looking at it. It’s just a way of life, you know. It’s been a common practice for numbers and numbers of years, you know. There’s never been any paperwork ever required. If we wanted to trade horses, move horses, you know, it’s just a way of life, you know. . . You’ve got ranchers out there that are paying the permit fees on grazing, and then they have a bunch of wild horses move in, you know, they’re loosing money because they are paying for that grass. These wild horses come in and are eating up their grass, so they’re pissed off. It’s our job to disburse those horses, you know, so we do our best to get rid of as many as we can. I don’t really consider it stealing.
____________________________
*** An HMA, or designated Horse Management Area, the area discussed here, serves as the legal and legislative aspect that Wild Horses are the priority. The ranchers leasing an abundant amount of land, in this case, has never had an under abundance of grass for grazing their stock, which is secondary anyway, on an HMA land and according to Law. There are simply not enough Wild Horses to overgraze the amount of land in discussion here. Then we go to the fact that Sales Receipts, from what we term Welfare Ranchers’, and their cattle that graze on America’s Public Lands, (GAO Report and DOI Report) less than 1% of overall sales of beef comes from Public Lands grazing-permit beef sales domestically in both 2012 and 2013; yet, this is at a taxpayer cost of $450 million dollars for BLM to just administer the Grazing Permit program yearly, and then subsidies in the minimal amount of $2.9 billion of taxpayer money –

Reference for Interview used within this article:

1997 April, Horses to Slaughter, Anatomy of a Cover-up within the Wild Horse and Burro Program of the Bureau of Land Management, PEER White Paper Number 14.

 
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Posted by on February 11, 2015 in Uncategorized

 
 
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